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What is Pancreatic CancerOm PatelMr. Madden12/8/17AbstractThe paper will outline the background of cancer and the anatomy of the pancreas, while simultaneously showcasing the vast information on pancreatic cancer with references from esteemed peer edited journals and credible online sources. Pancreatic cancer is a rare cancer that is similar to other cancers following similar trends with the hallmarks of cancer and many other features from oncogenes that allow for the formation of the cancerous cells in the Pancreas. Pancreatic cancer is extensively discussed on methods of diagnosis and treatment for one of the highest mortality rates based on cancer types. The evidence from the paper showcases the pancreatic cancer’s ill effects and various pathways that cause mutations in the DNA in the form of oncogenes, which encode for hallmarks like growth factors, and other aids in ability of the cancerous cells to replicate. The research paper outlines a unique pro of cancer, which is cancer is the catalyst for innovation in the field of aging.  Introduction: Cancer is a mutation in the cell’s DNA, which changes the cell dramatically classified in the “Hallmarks of cancer.” The hallmarks are sustaining high levels of proliferation, resisting apoptosis, turning off growth suppressors, enabling theoretical immortality, angiogenesis, and metastasis. These hallmarks are the basic and crucial components of cancerous cells  (Hanahan & Weinberg, 2011). The mutations are from various areas of the cell’s DNA and can be caused by many stimuli, because there is no one cause for cancer. Alcohol, smoking, and obesity are the three most speculated causes for disease, because of the increase of mutations that these risky situations have on the body. Cancer can occur in any location of the body, because any cell has the potential of mutating, which makes Cancer a deadly disease for humanity. Cancer is a household term, because of the deadly implications on the general population it has incurred, because is the leading cause of death with 8.2 million cancer related deaths in 2012. 14.1 million new cancer cases were seen in the year of 2012 with an expected growth rate of 70 percent of cancer cases, because of the population growing older. The age of the potential patient, make the cells susceptible to mutations that are carcinogenesis, because of the less accurate system in the cell over years of depreciation of cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and translation that can cause mutations in the cell, because of the complexity of the processes. Cancer has a high mortality rate, but the cancer with the highest mortality rate is Pancreatic Cancer, which has the fourth highest death toll with cancer related deaths, but is the tenth most common cancer. Pancreatic Cancer is one of the most deadly, because of the nonexistent symptoms in the early stages of Pancreatic Cancer allowing the cancer to go undetected unlike other cancer types. Pancreatic Cancer is normally noticed in third or fourth stage of cancer, which causes for the decreased treatment options. Pancreatic Cancer is the key focus of this article, because of the interestingly unknown causes and no known solution implemented to prevent the spread of this disease. The article focuses on the functions and anatomy of the Pancreas and the formation, diagnosis, and treatment plan for Pancreatic Cancer (Sawant & Shegokar, 2014).PancreasPancreas is an important organ of the body, because of the ability to aid in digestion, make of insulin, and create hormones. Pancreas in the body is above the intestine and below the liver, but adjacent to the gall bladder and lymph nodes. The shape of the Pancreas is similar to a fish, because the Pancreas has three distinct features the head, body, and tail. The head is located snugly near the duodenum, which connects to the common bile duct allowing for accessible transport of the hormones and digestive enzymes. The body becomes thinner and has vast network ducts running throughout to allow for the accessibility. The tail is the thinnest portion of the pancreas and is the tip of the pancreas, which is slightly pointed at the end. Pancreas has lobules in the outer membrane of the organ, which are shaped as semicircular. Body Pancreas is separated into two major parts the endocrine and exocrine. The endocrine secretes the hormones and transports in the body with the use of the pancreatic duct. The endocrine comprises of the islets of Langerhans, which are the location for the secretion of the hormones. The insulin is used to regulate the sugar levels in the body, but when insulin does not equate to the levels of sugar in the body, the patient is referred to as diabetic. A lesser-known mediator of sugar levels in the pancreas is the hormone glucagon (Pancreas Center, 2017). The maintenance of sugar levels are key to the body, because can result in the extensive medical issues, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. The Pancreas is the bedrock for fundamental processes of life, because of the endocrine secretion of hormones that regulate the sugar levels. (Asif, 2014) Exocrine is used for creating digestive enzymes, which can go into the duodenum and aid in the digestion of food before entering the intestine. The enzymes created vary to digest the various types of food from proteins to fats. The two enzymes in the Pancreas that aid in the digestion of proteins are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Amylase aids in the digestion of carbohydrates, while lipase aids in the digestion of fats. Pancreas is a key organ in the body, because aids in digestion and helps in the formation of hormones to regulate sugar levels (Pancreas Center, 2017). The Pancreas can become cancerous, which alters the useful nature of the pancreas to a deadly cancer. Pancreatic CancerThe Cancer type is unique, because of no display of symptoms until later stages, which gives medical staff limited options. The Pancreatic Cancer has an estimated 38,460 out of 45,220 people expected to die in the year of 2013, but the research and development is stagnant for Pancreatic Cancer, because the death toll is expected to increase 70 percent each year (Sawant & Shegokar, 2014).  The most common form of Pancreatic Cancer is Ductal adenocarcinoma, because 95% of cases reported have been Ductal adenocarcinoma. The Pancreatic Cancer is caused by many bad habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking of cigarettes, but can also be genetically related as recent studies have shown (Ziyad & Iruela-Arispe, 2011).         Pancreatic Cancer forms primarily from mutations in the genes of normal cells known as proto-oncogenes most common form of mutation is point mutation to form the oncogenic genes. These genes are the able to increase the cellular activities, which give more potential for the cell to create more mutations for example deletion of the tumor suppressor. Oncogenes also code for the signal transducers and cellular death inhibitors. The Pancreatic Cancer does not have a sole cause, but is normally formed from the mutations in the proto-oncogenes forming oncogenes. Pancreatic cancer uses signal pathways with the K-Ras mutations, which force the cell to have the GTP actively bounded, resulting in an accelerated rate of cellular replication. K-Ras is an integral part of Pancreatic Cancer, because regulates most processes of the cell for a carcinogenic cell: inhibition of apoptosis, cell cycle and transcription, calcium signaling, and proliferation. The K-Ras mutation causes for a trickle down effect to the pathways changing the processes to allow for carcinogenesis. The signal pathways that enable this to happen are HGF, MAPK, PTEN, and STAT. C-MET is the oncogene that encodes for HGF, which is a growth factor for the cell, which is important in growth initial growth of the cancerous cells. Ras encodes for MAPK, which is an important regulator of DNA transcription and mRNA translations. AKT1 is an oncogene that allows the cell to avoid apoptosis by blocking it and at the same time promotes in angiogenesis. JAK is crucial to DNA regulation, because activate DNA transcription and prevents apoptosis through complex processes. The gene for Cell control, CDKN2A has a profound impact in the ability to be Cancerous, because of the inhibitors that are a result of the alternating splicing sites, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and p53-activator. Both are crucial in the tumors growth the more common is lost through mutation (Ziyad & Iruela-Arispe, 2011). The Pancreatic Cancerous cells can block density inhibitors and other factors that impede on growth factors in the cell, which cause for cancerous cells to have a difficulty acquiring the required nutrients, when rapidly cells surround the cell, because of the blocking of density inhibitors. The method used by cancerous cells to resolve the issue of necessary materials for cell life is known as Angiogenesis, which allow the cancer cells to divert the bloodstream towards the cancer cells. Angiogenesis in detail uses Matrix metalloproteinases to generate the migration and creation of angiogenesis with many other different factors for morphing the bloodstream to efficiently provide for the tumor, which is similar to the organs ability to acquire nutrients from the bloodstream.         Pancreatic Cells are extremely deadly, because of the late diagnosis, but similar to other cancers the unregulated growth of the cells causes for the cell to impede the tasks of the surrounding cells. The cell impedes the surrounding cells’ ability to export and import nutrient and other required materials for cellular functions like exporting the waste product of carbon dioxide, and importing nutrients like glucose from the bloodstream. The cancerous cell starts at stage one, which is the local area. Next, the tumor will grow to a regional area of the Pancreas for a pancreatic tumor, which will harm the pancreas is crucial process as detailed in an above paragraph. The third stage is extremely dangerous; because this is the stage, that metastasis occurs. Metastasis is the spreading of cancerous cells outside of the original region for example the Pancreatic Cancer could go to the liver, which would vastly increase the area of exposure. The final and fourth stage is when the Cancer has made progress to impede in the basic processes of the patient’s life. The Fourth stage essentially prevents the organs to process normally, and prevent the normal life sustaining processes.Pancreatic Cancer is diagnosed with symptoms in the patient, but in the Pancreatic Cancer, the symptoms are limited and are showcased in the last two stages. Early diagnosis is an attempt to aid in the ability to combat the mortality rate in Pancreatic Cancer, by marking the oncogenes in the Pancreas and checking for family history of Cancer. The two possible ways to diagnosis Pancreatic Cancer are just two of the many variations in testing to be used in the real world.         Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer is still very basic and destructive. The treatments available are Surgery, Radiation therapy, and Chemotherapy, which are the three major formats used on Pancreatic Cancer patients. The first approach is always the Surgery, because of the least harmful to the body of the patient, but is only able to be done in first and two stages. The limitations on surgery are because of metastasis spreading the cancer out that the surgery would not prevent the Cancer, and cause the patient more harm than necessary. The prominent surgery done is whipple surgery when applicable to the scenario of the patient. The next possible method is Radiation therapy, which is extremely harmful to the body, but is as harmful to the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is for primarily second stage and for third stage of Cancer. The last prominent method is Chemotherapy, but this method is the most dangerous. Chemotherapy is a dangerous method, because of the usage of harmful chemicals that destroy cells at alarming rate, but also eliminate the cancerous cells. The Chemotherapy has a low probability of working, because of metastasis already occurring in the cell and affecting various different sites in the body. Chemotherapy is administered by injection or pills which allow for some targeting of the cancer site. The future for treatments is the use of specialization of the patient’s genetic DNA in the making of the treatment plan. (7)Application of Cancer to further medical studies are phenomenal, because the cell in theory is immortal with sufficient resources. The cell allows for proof of the possibility that humans have the potential to become immortal similar to the cancerous cells. The prime example of Cancer’s aid in the discovering a pathway to immortality is the knowledge that scientist have learned on Telomeres. Telomeres are the ends of the cell that act as caps for protection of the DNA, which causes cell death if the telomere caps are gone to prevent harmful mutations in the body. The ability that telomeres play a crucial role in Cancer prompted extensive research into telomeres and telomerase. This spur of knowledge led to strides in the medical knowledge on immortality, because of the ability to regrow the telomeres with telomerase, which can in the near future increase the lifespan of average citizens. The average person has a set amount of telomere at the ends of the DNA, but each time the DNA is replicated the telomeres erode at a microscopic level, but over trillions of replications, the telomeres show depreciation of the length. The ability that cancerous cells have is to use telomerase in order to replace these aging cells, which helps keep the cells alive and without any harmful mutations. The same process is attempted to be applied on humans’ cells without applying cancerous cells that impede on the body’s processes.Conclusion:Cancer is a complex evolution from a single mutation to metastases. Pancreatic Cancer has the highest mortality rates, and we have miniscule knowledge on this specific cancer. The knowledge available shows that the Pancreatic cancer occurs from specific mutations pertaining to the cell’s regulation genes, which are also termed oncogenes. Cancer is depicted as a deadly disease, because of the high mortality rates of patients, but the worst mortality rate cancer is Pancreatic, which is because of the low detection after oncogenes have changed the proteins in the cells to allow for blocking of apoptosis and the ability of angiogenesis. Pancreatic Cancer has a vastly less information on the cancer, because of its rarity, which helps it be the deadliest cancer. Scientists are making great strides in understanding the biological functions of pancreatic cancer for applying this knowledge to an effective treatment an example can be gene therapy and many more variations for treating cancer. The detection of cancer is also making strides by scientists and has  allowed for other cancers to quickly detect and treat efficiently. Cancer is depicted as a sinister force, but can also be seen in the unique light of hope. Cancerous cells have the special ability to become immortal in theory and with this discovery the question that is being pursued is how to apply cancerous cell’s unique ability to humans for them to live longer and in the distant future become immortal. The world has significantly improved the progress on cancer research, but needs to expand on the limited understanding to apply to Pancreatic Cancer.         References:Abramson, M. A., Jazag, A., Zee, J. A., & Whang, E. E. (2007). The Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666839/ Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977406/Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2011, March 04). Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Retrieved December 18, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376230/ Kim, V. M., & Ahuja, N. (2015, August). Early detection of pancreatic cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560741/Makohon-Moore, A., & Iacobuzio-Donahue, C. A. (2016, July 22). 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