International Financing Reporting can be referred to as a set of accounting criterions developed by the International Accounting Standards Board which is applied when fixing the Financial Statement and Balance Sheet of a company. In supplying a planetary model, IFRS has its ain specific ends of how public companies organize and unwrap their fiscal statements.
Definition of Small Medium Enterprises ( SMEs )
A little and average sized endeavor ( SME ) is managed by freelance people either in partnership or on their ain. It tends to be companies that are independent. The definition of SME is different from one state to another, depending on how many employees that the companies have. Harmonizing to Saleh ( 2006 ) , Malaysia ‘s SME can be represented based on the turnover, size and activity of the company.
SMEs standards in Malaysia can be divided into three classs which are micro, medium and little endeavors and it has been classified into the parts of the sectors based on full clip employees and one-year gross revenues turnover. Based on Mohammad ( 2012 ) , the definitions of SMEs in Malaysia as in twelvemonth 2005 are as the tabular array below:
Table 1: Definition based on full clip employees.
& A ; lt ; 5
& A ; lt ; 5
& A ; lt ; 5
Table 2: Definition based on one-year gross revenues turnover, in Ringgit Malaysia ( RM ) .
& A ; lt ; RM200,000
& A ; lt ; RM 250,000
& A ; lt ; RM 200,000
What is IFRS for SME
IFRS for SMEs has been issued by International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) in 2009 ( Goel, 2010 ) . IFRS for a SME is based on the bing full set of IFRS, but it is customised to fit the demand of coverage and accounting in SMEs. It can besides be defined as entities that publish general intent fiscal statements for external users.
The advantages and disadvantages of IFRS for SMEs
There are a figure of advantages and disadvantages in following IFRS for SMEs. One of the advantages in following IFRS for SMEs is heightening the comparison of fiscal statements and bettering entree to international support. Under IFRS for SMEs it uses different accounting method. As stated by ( KPMG, 2010 ) the different in accounting intervention that IFRS for SMEs have which leads to less comparable than those that using full IFRS and it can cut down the clip as more entities adopt the criterion therefore the reading of the demand in the standard become standardised.
IFRS besides can beef up the SMEs place when negotiate with the recognition establishments and when it has a positive consequence that have on a recognition evaluations so this will cut down the cost of borrowing. For case, the acceptance of IFRS leads to an addition in equity ratio and reappraisal of fixed assets. This is because IFRS information can assist the SMEs in purchasing and selling goods or services to acquire new relationship with clients and providers in locally or internationally since the fiscal coverage has been standard by internationally.
Besides that, IFRS for SMEs is less complex that has been simplified from the full IFRS. Harmonizing to ( Jayakumar, n.a ) , IFRS for SMEs has been simplified through the cardinal rules of full IFRS to do the accounting demand less complex and besides cut down the attempt to bring forth the fiscal statements which International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) has removed some figure of accounting option that have in full IFRS.
In contrast, Accounting Standards Committee of German ( 2008 ) supported that the readying of fiscal statement in IFRS for SMEs is clip, attempt and cost intensive that non all demands and issues in the ED ( Exposure Draft ) IFRS for SMEs were carefully understood and right applied by the participants. This is because German is a revenue enhancement driven in the fiscal statement instead than economically relevant values.
Furthermore, some people suggest that IFRS for SMEs is non applicable to follow and it should be rejected. For case, based on Samujh ( 2007 ) , New Zealand is non appropriate to follow IFRS for SMEs because of equilibrating rules, practicality and political relations might be hard for the state to meet the criterions with the planetary criterions. The acceptance of IFRS for SMEs will impact the current coverage ordinance in New Zealand.
Other than that, IFRS for SMEs particularly in developing states is hard to pull off because of some limited resources in that state. As mentioned by Bohusova et. Al ( 2011 ) , SMEs for developing states is hard to get by with typical SMEs challenges such as limited human resources and limited fiscal and the determination to follow the IFRS is based on their economic growing, being in the capital market and others.
The disadvantage of IFRS for SMEs is it can make a possible confusion in the market place. For case, in following IFRS for SMEs there is a relevant ordinance that some state must to follow before or after the following such as in Germany, they are utilizing revenue enhancement accounting in their fiscal statement prepared by German GAAP. However, as stated by Kemp ( 2009 ) , in Australia there are many issues that should be considered from the lawgivers in mensurating the appropriate IFRS for SMEs that create two versions of GAAP which are full IFRS and IFRS for SMEs which make extra preparation, and passage issues between these two versions.
Additionally, the accounting package is non consistent so the users should be educated in the new criterion because it keeps altering. The fiscal statement must be comparable and clearly apprehensible so that it would be easier for the user to compare the public presentation. Harmonizing to Miller ( 2010 ) , the alterations for accounting package and loaning understanding will be required such as the alterations in the new criterion which need the users of fiscal statements to be educated and some company want to alter their accounting house that the company needs to happen a house that know how to use of IFRS for SMEs.
Overall, IFRS for SMEs is easier for the user to utilize alternatively of using full IFRS. This is because, full IFRS will give a load for the user as IFRS has become more detail and more states have started to utilize IFRS since full IFRS is excessively complex to utilize.
An statements and arguments in following IFRS for SMEs.
Based on IASB, there is more than 50 legal powers decided in full IFRS must be compulsory by all the entities in the SMEs and when the full IFRS is equal for all entities, so the IFRS for SMEs will be appropriate. In contrast with Neag, R. et Al. ( 2009 ) suggested that IFRS for SMEs is non mandatory for all entities. This has been proved by Deloitte ( 2013 ) that non all legal powers have adopted the full IFRS, the full IFRS is following merely for the legal powers that do non hold their ain accounting systems.
Other than that, as stated by Reilly ( 2009 ) , IFRS for SMEs has more simplified criterion that is appropriate for the bigger unlisted companies to follow and by following IFRS for SMEs can salvage sum of money for those who in unlisted companies that have adopted full IFRS. He besides suggest that some argue that unlisted companies that are fixing the fiscal statement should be applied for IFRS for SMEs and the argument on this issues is the IFRS for SMEs standard needs some cost to follow but it is excessively complex for little unlisted entities. As mentioned by Stokdyk ( 2010 ) , he recommended that IFRS for SMEs was best suited for the big and average sized entities describing under full IFRS.
Furthermore, some people argued that no 1 want an option in the IFRS for SMEs. This is because the states non frequently to hold an option in fiscal coverage. For case, in German about 80 per cent German companies do non desire to follow IFRS for SMEs in their present bill of exchange signifier because they encountered troubles when asked for the fiscal information for the German maker that exports to the US and would bring forth information that prepared by German Commercial Code ( Canham, 2008 ) .
When a states change the fiscal coverage criterions it will be hard for the company to utilize the new criterions. There is the other argument about the differential coverage that was an of import issue in Australia. Harmonizing to Faux ( 2005 ) , in early 1980s, the differential coverage was an importance issue that the state should be considered when the accounting regulators were developing a model for their fiscal coverage. The regulators focus on fiscal coverage that should be provide the general intent information to the demands of wide-ranging of users who are unable to knowledge the readying of the fiscal studies that was tailored to their ain demands.
As a decision, IFRS for SMEs is more appropriate for international demand particularly for the developed and emerging economic systems which a common set of accounting criterions in the smaller and medium sized endeavors is easier for the user to utilize than the full set of IFRS.
Why taking Malaya in IFRS for SME
SME companies have an of import place in the economic system, most significantly in developed and developing economic systems. Malaya is one of an emerging economic system in Asia. Thus, Malaysia want to follow the IFRS for SMEs in order to better assurance in the histories of SMEs, to cut down the cost that is involved in keeping the criterions since IFRS for SMEs is more cost effectual to bring forth, and to better the comparison for users of histories of fiscal statements across different industries
History and ordinances of accounting for IFRS and SMEs in Malaysia
In June 2005, the definition of SME across the economic sectors was approved by the National SME Development Council with indorsement from all the Government Ministries and Agencies every bit good as fiscal establishments that are involved in SMEs in Malaysia ( National Development Council, 2005 ) .
In 2006, Malaysia was introduced two-tier coverage model issued by Malaysia Accounting Standards ( MASB ) for the companies in Malaysia which are MASB had approved Financial Reporting Standard ( FRS ) for non-private entities and the Private Entity Reporting Standards ( PERs ) for the private entities with the aim to cut down the load of private entities in the fiscal coverage conformity.
Other than that, in August 2008, Malaysia had brought the Financial Reporting Standards ( FRSs ) into full concurrence with IFRS. As stated by ( Malayan Institute of Accountants, n.a ) , in 1 August 2008 the Financial Reporting Foundation ( FRF ) and MASB announced a program to convey full convergence with the IFRS which is the full conformity with IFRS for the fiscal coverage system in Malaysia by 1 January 2012.
Therefore, the program that made by MASB and FRF create an exposure bill of exchange issued by MASB. MASB Exposure Draft 75 IFRS-compliant Financial Reporting Standards that was issued by MASB on 28 June 2011 consequence in the Malayan fiscal coverage model being standard with IFRS-compliant fiscal coverage model.
While in 2010, ED 72 FRS for SMEs has been issued by MASB. Harmonizing to ( MIA, n.a ) , MASB issued MASB ED 72 FRS for SMEs in 26 March 2010 for the SMEs in Malaysia to utilize by users that required to print general fiscal statement intent for the external users and do non hold public answerability. Other than that, the intent of IFRS for SMEs in Malaysia is to cut down the elaborate demands under the full IFRS for little entities since full IFRS is excessively complex for little entities to use. In Malaysia, the IFRS for SMEs was issued ED 72 in March 2010 ( MASB, n. a ) . Therefore, ED 72 is indistinguishable with the IFRS for SMEs that was issued by IASB. IASB issued the IFRS for SMES in July 2009 ( MASB, 2010 ) .
By and large, Malaysia is in the procedure in following IFRS for SMEs that is expected to be issued in 2013. The alterations of the IFRS for SMEs in Malaysia will be in 2015 on the any amendments to the IFRS for SMEs. Harmonizing to IFRS ( 2013 ) , during the first half of twelvemonth 2013, Malaysia is expected to be issued FRS for SMEs and it will be effectual for one-year periods on or after 1 January 2016 of the new model for the private entities. This means that, MASB is sing replacing the PERS model in Malaysia to IFRS for SMEs in 2016.
The relevancy and rightness of IFRS for SME ‘s in Malaysia.
As we know that, full IFRS is excessively complex to use for little entities. Therefore, to do an appropriate for smaller entities, Malaysia needs IFRS for SMEs to supply self-contained in the set of accounting rules which is based on full IFRS. Malaysia makes a alteration in IFRS for SMEs from the full IFRS founded from the demands of users in SMEs fiscal statements which is based on the subjects that are non relevant to the SMEs, hence they will extinguish the subjects and take the picks for accounting intervention to do it simple. Other than that, they are besides simplifying the methods for the measuring and acknowledgment for the IFRS for SMEs.
However, Malaysia has two models which are PERs and MFRs. The jobs occur when comparing these two models harmonizing to current certification and its readings. Since IFRS for SMEs is new to the coverage entities, the patterns and reading of it must be develop from clip to clip. For illustration, the entities must considered for cost intensive when they want to alter PERs to follow IFRS for SMEs which they have to pay more to follow a new criterion in the entities.
As stated by Yusoff ( 2009 ) , the Companies Commission will come out in progress with some of the recommendations that have been made by Company Law Reform Committee in Malaysia including the debut of a threshold before an audit is required. Normally, most states do non hold across the board audit demands except for Malaysia. In Malaysia, the foreign investors and inactive companies must be audited so the hearers to SMEs would be valuable because this forces them to be independent and could decline the concern advice to carry through the professional demands.
Other than that, SMEs have to confront with tough competition in a liberalized environment and they need to bring forth choice goods at a competitory monetary value in order to vie in the market. By holding the alterations to IFRS for SMEs would give SMEs in Malaysia to hold more capablenesss to confront stiff competition in the market by holding rational strong external fiscal coverage to do certain it entree to capital is non compromised ( Yusoff, 2009 ) . When Malaysia ‘s SMEs react rapidly of their planetary rivals, they will promote the invention and the ordinance would alter.
Furthermore, the acceptance of IFRS for SMEs has been issued by MASB and IFRS for SMEs can supply turning concern which they required to use full Malaysian FRSs. However, in 2011, MASB approved another model for accounting in IFRS for SMEs. Harmonizing to Farmer ( 2011 ) , Malaysia has agreed to hold a new accounting model based on the Malayan Financial Reporting Standards ( MFRS Framework ) approved by MASB on 19 November 2011 and it is applicable from 1st January 2012. Hence, Malayan SMEs can take either to go on to use PERS or the new MFRS Framework.
Therefore, the IFRS for SMEs in Malaysia is relevant since its accounting model in IFRS for SMEs is separate from the full IFRS. Based on ( MASB, 2010 ) , at the international degree, IFRS is separate with the accounting model in IFRS for SMEs therefore it is non affect MASB ‘s IFRS convergence with policy in 2012 since Malaya have the determination on whether to follow the criterion or non.
In contrast with New Zealand, the IFRS for SMEs is uncertainness relevant in their states because this state must bear the cost for implementing and keeping in both full IFRS and IFRS for SMEs ( Samujh, 2007 ) .
The stableness of economic system and political in Malaysia has created more investors to put in Malaysia. This has been proved by Bernama ( 2012 ) , Mustapa Mohamad who is the Minister of International Trade and Industry said that there were four SMEs from Japan that want to put in agribusiness, fabrication and green energy industry in Malaysia which is some of them have bought land to get down the operation in Malaysia. Malaysia besides has developed substructure similar with other western state which lead for Malaysia to be a host of other services that result in this state to go a good topographic point for the investors because of Malaysia ‘s economic and political stableness ( Malayan Dutch Business Council, n.a ) . When Malaysia adopts IFRS for SMEs, the criterion will be the same with international. Therefore, it will be easier for the investor to put in the SMEs in Malaysia since the fiscal coverage has been standardised.
In Malaysia, the of import part of SMEs is in footings of its economic growing, employment and exports. Harmonizing to Ministry of International Trade and Industry ( 2013 ) , SMEs contribute to the economic system in footings of Gross Domestic Products GDP for 30 % , for the entire work force is 56.4 % and in footings of entire exports is 19 % . SMEs play an of import function in the economic system of Malaysia in bring forthing economic growing for the state. Other than that, the SME sector contains 99.2 per cent of all concerns in Malaysia ( Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 2005 ) .
Finally, as a decision IFRS for SMEs in Malaysia is appropriate to use because it is under control by MASB. As stated by Godfrey et. Al, ( 2007 ) , MASB has a to the full responsible for the development of the accounting criterions in Malaysia. They are besides holding the power to publish new accounting criterions, make any alterations to suggest the accounting criterions when it is necessary to alter and others. Other than that, SME Corp was established in Malaysia to supervise and measure the application of schemes, policies and the development in the SMEs across all economic sectors ( Hashim, 2009 pp.269-295 ) . Besides that, presently Malaysia is an consultative for all SMEs in Malaysia and a cardinal point as the mention information for the users in SMEs.