Why we should study Philosophy Executive summary: The business of philosophy is to think clearly and logically about the deepest and broadest questions: What is the nature of Reality? How can we distinguish right from wrong, and truth from falsehood? How should we organize society and act toward one another? How much can we know about these, and other issues? When you study philosophy here at the University of Maryland, you will be studying the best efforts, both old and new, to make progress towards philosophy’s aim, which is a clear and systematic view of who we are, where we stand, and where we should be going.
Because philosophy deals with the big issues, and uses reflection (taking thought about our situation) as one of its main methods, it is sometimes confused with religion, or psychology, or mystical experience. Philosophy does indeed aim to reach an overall vision; this is an impulse which it shares with all the religions. But philosophy proceeds only by plain hard thinking, and tests everything by the rules of ordinary reason alone. All thought and action is carried on within some general framework of ideas about nature and about human life.
In that sense you already have a philosophy, even if you are not yet aware of it. One of the ways studying philosophy contributes to intellectual life is by uncovering the unstated assumptions behind scientific and social life, and testing the validity of those assumptions. Another is that knowing some philosophy is worthwhile for its own sake; it’s part of being an educated person. Philosophy classes are not easy; but do not be afraid of them. We realize that you have had no opportunity to study the subject up till now.
Introductory classes really do begin at the beginning. We understand how unfamiliar to you are both the material in philosophy books and the way we tackle that material. Even though our courses tend to be demanding, and your work will be given critical scrutiny, most of our students succeed in fulfilling the class requirements. If they can do it, probably you can too. Table of Content |Sl. No | Context Page number | |01 |Title fly |01 | |02 |Title page |02 | |03 |Letter of transmittal |03 | |04 |Acknowledgement and executive summary |04 | |05 |Introduction |08 | |06 |Study background |09 | |07 |Problem study |0 | |08 |Objective of report |11 | |09 |History of western political philosophy |12 | |10 |Classics of political philosophy |12 | |11 |Indian political philosophy |13 | |12 |Political philosophy |13 | |13 |History of political philosophy |13 | |14 |Jeffersonian political philosophy |13 | |15 |Political philosophy of Immanuel kant |14 | |16 |Description of Philosophy |14 | |17 |Another |15 | |18 |Introduction to Philosophy: Defining, Studying, Doing Philosophy is Important | 16 | |19 |Need to know Philosophy |17 | |20 |Limitation |18 | |21 |Direction or suggestion for the future report |18 | |22 |Discussion with data interpretation |19 | |23 |Conclusion |20 | |24 |Recommendation |21 | Table of figures Serial no |Context |page number | |01 |Bar chart |19 | Introduction The study of philosophy is exciting on its own terms and it provides students with intellectual abilities to succeed in many fields of academic and professional work, as well as a basis for leading a richer, more contemplative life. A major or minor course of study in philosophy develops a particular set of skills: Major and minors in philosophy are able to make critical evaluation of philosophical positions and arguments using the techniques and methods of philosophy, and are able to explain the methodology itself.
They are able to interpret contemporary and historical texts, reconstruct positions, follow complex lines of reasoning, expose presuppositions, weigh evidence for or against views, craft arguments, make objections and replies, offer creative answers to philosophical questions and construct independent solutions to philosophical problems. Study background A major or minor course of study in philosophy also develops a distinctive body of knowledge in philosophy itself. The emphasis of this study depends in part on the particular major or minor that a student pursues, whether the traditional major in philosophy, the modified major, the general minor in philosophy, or one of the special minors in philosophy. • Majors in philosophy are knowledgeable about the main contemporary and historical areas, authors, concepts, methodologies, techniques and problems of philosophy. Modified majors in philosophy are well-acquainted with the main contemporary and historical areas, authors, concepts, methodologies, techniques and problems of philosophy, and understand especially the philosophical issues connected with the particular secondary field of study in the modified major (e. g. , physics, history, literature, film studies, etc. ). • Minors in philosophy are well-acquainted with the main contemporary and historical areas, authors, concepts, methodologies, techniques and problems of philosophy. • Special minors in philosophy are likewise well-acquainted with the main contemporary and historical areas, authors, concepts, methodologies, techniques and problems of philosophy.
They will be especially well-versed in key areas in the emphasis of their minor study, whether in history of philosophy or moral philosophy or epistemology and metaphysics or logic and philosophy of science Problem studied PHILOSOPHY is a study that seeks to understand the mysteries of existence and reality. It tries to discover the nature of truth and knowledge and to find what is of basic value and importance in life. It also examines the relationships between humanity and nature and between the individual and society. Philosophy arises out of wonder, curiosity, and the desire to know and understand. Philosophy is thus a form of inquiry–a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation, and speculation. The term philosophy cannot be defined precisely because the subject is so complex and so controversial.
Different philosophers have different views of the nature, methods, and range of philosophy. The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. In that sense, wisdom is the active use of intelligence, not something passive that a person simply possesses. The first known Western philosophers lived in the ancient Greek world during the early 500’s B. C. These early philosophers tried to discover the basic makeup of things and the nature of the world and of reality. For answers to questions about such subjects, people had largely relied on magic, superstition, religion, tradition, or authority. But the Greek philosophers considered those sources of knowledge unreliable.
Instead, they sought answers by thinking and by studying nature. Philosophy has also had a long history in some non-Western cultures, especially in China and India. But until about 200 years ago, there was little interchange between those philosophies and Western philosophy, chiefly because of difficulties of travel and communication. As a result, Western philosophy generally developed independently of Eastern philosophy. Objective of report: Objectivism” is a term that describes a branch of philosophy that originated in the early nineteenth century. Gottlob Frege was the first to apply it, when he expounded an epistemological and metaphysical theory contrary to that of Immanuel Kant.
Kant’s rationalism attempted to reconcile the failures he perceived in realism, empiricism, and idealism and to establish a critical method of approach in the distinction between epistemology and metaphysics. Objectivism, in this context, is an alternative name for philosophical realism, the view that there is a reality or ontological realm of objects and facts that exists independent of the mind. Stronger versions of this claim hold that there is only one correct description of this reality. If it is true that reality is mind-independent, then reality might include objects that are unknown to consciousness and thus might include objects not the subject of intentionality. Objectivity in referring requires a definition of truth.
According to metaphysical objectivists, an object may truthfully be said to have this or that attribute, as in the statement “This object exists,” whereas the statement “This object is true” or “false” is meaningless. For them, only propositions have truth values. Essentially, the terms “objectivity” and “objectivism” are not synonymous, with objectivism being an ontological theory that incorporates a commitment to the objectivity of objects. Plato’s realism was a form of metaphysical objectivism, holding that the Ideas exist objectively and independently. Berkeley’s empiricist idealism, on the other hand, could be called a subjectivism: he held that things only exist to the extent that they are perceived. Both theories claim methods of objectivity.
Plato’s definition of objectivity can be found in his epistemology, which takes as a model mathematics, and his metaphysics, where knowledge of the ontological status of objects and ideas is resistant to change. Plato considered knowledge of geometry as a condition of philosophical knowledge, both being concerned with universal truths. Plato’s opposition between objective knowledge and doxa (opinions) would become the basis for later philosophies intent on resolving the problem of reality, knowledge and human existence. Personal opinions belong to the changing sphere of the sensible, opposed to a fixed and eternal incorporeal realm which is mutually intelligible.
Where Plato distinguishes between what and how we know things (epistemology) and their ontological status as things (metaphysics), subjectivism such as Berkeley’s and a mind dependence of knowledge and reality fails to make the distinction between what one knows and what is to be known, or in the least explains the distinction superficially. In Platonic terms, a criticism of subjectivism is that it is difficult to distinguish between knowledge, doxa, and subjective knowledge (true belief), distinctions which Plato makes. The importance of perception in evaluating and understanding objective reality is debated. Realists argue that perception is key in directly observing objective reality, while instrumentalists hold that perception is not necessarily useful in directly observing objective reality, but is useful in interpreting and predicting reality. The concepts that encompass these ideas are important in the philosophy of science. History of western political philosophy Political philosophy is the study of concepts such as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it. Classics of political philosophy
• Political philosophy is the study of concepts such as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it . History of political philosophy History of Political Philosophy is a philosophy and political sciences text book published by the University of Chicago Press, edited by American philosophers Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. The volume is currently in its third edition. Indian political philosophy: • Indian political philosophy involves on the one hand speculations on the one hand on the relationships between individual, society and state, and detailed treatises on the mechanics of statecraft, state policy, war and diplomacy and international relations. Political philosophy • William J. Mander and Maria Dimova-Cookson. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN: 0199271666 Jeffersonian political philosophy Jeffersonians, so named after Thomas Jefferson, support a federal government with greatly constrained powers, and are strong advocates and followers of a strict interpretation of the U. S. Constitution. Jefferson himself followed and exhibited these principles. Political philosophy of Immanuel kant • Immanuel Kant favored a classical republican approach to political philosophy. In ” (1795) Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a world of constitutional republics by • establishment of political community. Description of Philosophy 1. Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline. 2.
Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods. 3. A system of thought based on or involving such inquiry: the philosophy of Hume. 4. The critical analysis of fundamental assumptions or beliefs. 5. The disciplines presented in university curriculums of science and the liberal arts, except medicine, law, and theology. 6. The discipline comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology. 7. A set of ideas or beliefs relating to a particular field or activity; an underlying theory: an original philosophy of advertising. 8. A system of values by which one lives: has an unusual philosophy of life. Another 1. Philosophy) the academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantics) 2. (Philosophy) the particular doctrines relating to these issues of some specific individual or school the philosophy of Descartes 3. (Philosophy) the critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a discipline the philosophy of law 4. Literary & Literary Critical Terms) Archaic or literary the investigation of natural phenomena, esp alchemy, astrology, and astronomy 5. Any system of belief, values, or tenets 6. A personal outlook or viewpoint 7. Serenity of temper Introduction to Philosophy: Defining, Studying, Doing Philosophy is Important Defining and explaining philosophy is no easy task — the very nature of the subject seems to defy description. The problem is that philosophy, in one way or another, ends up touching upon nearly every aspect of human life. Philosophy has something to say when it comes to science, art, religion, politics, medicine, and a host of other topics. This is also why a basic grounding in philosophy can be so important for irreligious atheists.
The more you know about philosophy, and even just the basics of philosophy, the more likely you’ll be able to reason clearly, consistently, and with more reliable conclusions. First, any time atheists get involved in debating religion or theism with believers, they end up either touching upon or getting deeply involved with several different branches of philosophy — metaphysics, philosophy of religion, philosophy of science, philosophy of history, logic, ethics, etc. This is inevitable and anyone who knows more about these subjects, even if it’s just the basics, will do a better job at making a case for their position, at understanding what others are saying, and at arriving at a fair, reasonable conclusion.
Second, even if a person never gets involved in any debates, they still need to arrive at some conception about their life, what life means to them, what they should do, how they should behave, etc. Religion typically presents all of this in a neat package that people can just open up and start using; irreligious atheists, however, generally need to work a lot of these things out for themselves. You can’t do that if you can’t reason clearly and consistently. This involves not just the various branches of philosophy, but also various philosophical schools or systems where gods are unnecessary: Existentialism, Nihilism, Humanism, etc. Most people and most irreligious atheists manage to get by without any specific or formal study of anything in philosophy, so obviously it isn’t absolutely and unquestionably necessary.
At least some understanding of philosophy should make it all easier, however, and will definitely open up more options, more possibilities, and thus perhaps make things better in the long run. You don’t need to be a philosophy student, but you should familiarize yourself with the basics — and there’s nothing more basic than understanding what “philosophy” is in the first place. Need to know Philosophy • It helps with discovering for ourselves who we are and what manner of world we are in. • Philosophy expands our horizons by enabling us to see beyond the world as it presently exists and to develop awareness of how things might be. • I develops our ability to reason clearly and to distinguish between good and bad arguments.
It improves our capacity to sort out complicated questions, and to write clear, readable prose. These are abilities which stand anyone in good stead. • Studying philosophy makes available to us some of the world’s great literature, making us aware of how greatly scientists and artists, statesmen and theologians have been influenced by the work of philosophers. • Philosophy also develops intellectual skills and attitudes which are crucial in today’s post-industrial world. For example, a recent study by psychologists looked at the correlates of success in the kinds of important reasoning tasks at which many people – even well-educated people – perform poorly. As you might expect, they found a correlation between success and IQ.
But even when that was factored out, there remained a substantial correlation with certain intellectual dispositions (or qualities of character) – such as a willingness to ‘step back’ from one’s own beliefs and consider other points of view, a capacity to think abstractly in a ‘decontextualized’ fashion, and so on. But these are, in fact, the very dispositions which philosophy develops! It is no wonder that many professions, such as law, are keen to recruit people with philosophical training. Limitation To complete this report we faced problems, such as don’t get sufficient time. We are unable to decide to divide the group work among the group members.
At first we did not know how to make report, how the structure of the report. We did not get easiest way. Although we were facing problem to make this report, finally we manage to make it. Direction or suggestion for the future report From this assignment we found many things. • We found how to do field work. • We found that how to manage time. • We found that how to overcome problem. • We found that how to manage group member. • We found the real situation of a business. • To know how to make report. • We found that how to problem identify and solve. For completing a report it is essential to take a plan first. Then gathering and collecting information.
Then analyzing and collecting information with group members. Then writing and rewriting the report. This type of gathering experience will help us to make a good report in future. Bar Chart Discussion with Data Interpretation In the bar chart our discussion is about why we study Philosophy which help us to Understand Human being. Help to lead a pleasant life and also to understand the deepest and broadest question. Conclusion Philosophic thought is an inescapable part of human existence. Almost everyone has been puzzled from time to time by such essentially philosophic questions as “What does life mean? ” “Did I have any existence before I was born? ” and “Is there life after death? Most people also have some kind of philosophy in the sense of a personal outlook on life. Even a person who claims that considering philosophic questions is a waste of time is expressing what is important, worthwhile, or valuable. A rejection of all philosophy is in itself philosophy. By studying philosophy, people can clarify what they believe, and they can be stimulated to think about ultimate questions. A person can study philosophers of the past to discover why they thought as they did and what value their thoughts may have in one’s own life. There are people who simply enjoy reading the great philosophers, especially those who were also great writers.
Philosophy has had enormous influence on our everyday lives. The very language we speak uses classifications derived from philosophy. For example, the classifications of noun and verb involve the philosophic idea that there is a difference between things and actions. If we ask what the difference is, we are starting a philosophic inquiry. Every institution of society is based on philosophic ideas, whether that institution is the law, government, religion, the family, marriage, industry, business, or education. Philosophic differences have led to the overthrow of governments, drastic changes in laws, and the transformation of entire economic systems.
Such changes have occurred because the people involved held certain beliefs about what is important, true, real, and significant and about how life should be ordered. Systems of education follow a society’s philosophic ideas about what children should be taught and for what purposes. Democratic societies stress that people learn to think and make choices for themselves. Nondemocratic societies discourage such activities and want their citizens to surrender their own interests to those of the state. The values and skills taught by the educational system of a society thus reflect the society’s philosophic ideas of what is important. Recommendation
The transferable skills one learns in studying Philosophy are useful in many everyday fields of human enterprise. Reading philosophy trains you to distill meaning from difficult texts and to read quickly but thoroughly. Thinking about philosophy improves your ability to reason and to see “the other point of view” in any particular question. Your opinions will be on firmer ground, both because they will have been better thought out and because the knowledge of various positions that have been held by philosophers through the ages will allow you to spot and avoid pitfalls that may be invisible to mere mortals. Sources: 1. Internet. 2. Newspapers and Magazine 3. TV 4. Collecting by field analyses. ———————– [pic]