Wireless the soil (whether soil is dry


Network Based Automatic Irrigation System


K.Bhagvan 1, Ankit
Kumar Verma2, V.Akhil3, Amrita

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Department of Computer Science and Engineering


KLEF, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, India

[email protected]@gmail.com2 [email protected]@gmail.com4


The Internet of things generally as IoT is a concept of sharing the network between
different network objects through internet connectivity. The main objective of
this project is to help the agriculturists during the irrigation process. IoT
plays a major role in the grazing fields. The Smart irrigation system minimizes
the wastage of water and helps farmers for successful usage of the water and
besides the crop development. In the proposed paper we are describing an
efficient system of irrigation to minimize the consumption of water in the.
This in turn grants a remote control mechanism to monitor the process of
irrigation. This irrigation process is automated only if the moisture


Temperature levels of the field falls below the
reference value. The notifications that are retrieved by the sensor are sent to
farmers mobile at a given period of time. The farmers can get SMS about the
condition of the soil (whether soil is dry or wet) based the dryness of the
soil. The farmers can easily operate the motor and can easily monitor all the
operation in the fields. This intelligent Irrigation system’s efficiency is
greater than 90% when compared with traditional method


Soil Moisture, Temperature, humidity, sensors, API,
Internet of Things.












As India being an agricultural
country and many people depend exclusively on agriculture, it is absolutely
important to increase production of crop. Now it’s the time to get the rapid
improvement of highly specialized greenhouse vegetables in the food production
mechanism as the demand of food has been increasing. This method provides a
major benefit and ease of production for the countries like India, where the
major part of the economy is based on the irrigation. The above method gives maximum
profit and also saves time and human effort. The climate conditions do not give
much impact as the moisture level of the soil can be adjusted. The objective of
this work is to control the flow of water to the fields through the mobile
phone. These entire processes can be implemented using microcontrollers & sensors. The moisture sensor is used to detect
the moisture in the soil. Those sensors are connected to the microcontrollers which
are ARM-based and are also helpful in the data processing. The primary goal of
this project is to send a short messaging service (SMS) for farmers as regards
the irrigation of divergent lands for on and off conditions. This system
further supports the mineral deposit management decision which helps to
determine the execution time of the process.
Automated irrigation system contains an application which is automated with a
devices present in the soil, and does not involve manual effort. This expected
system helps to control and, therefore, to minimize the workload of the farmer
by irrigating the ground respecting water requirements. We added sensors to
monitor humidity, temperature and content of moisture in the soil. As part of
this system, we can apply water-soluble fertilizers along with drip irrigation.
Therefore the proposed system also reduces the use of water and fertilizers,
since it applies fertilizers and water directly to the root area, which in turn
saves the usage of fertilizers and water significantly.




The primary purpose of this work
is to minimize the problems and disadvantages faced by all farmers in the
agriculture sectors. There have been multiple problems that cause soil
fertility and crop productivity to decrease. Another important problem faced by
the farmers during irrigation is the availability of water for irrigation. In
India there are many regions where sufficient amount of water is not available
for the farmers during the cultivation of crop. This causes farmers to stop
cultivation. Because of these issues, most the farmers are committing suicide.
As there is huge increase in the population in every region of the country,
probably there will be huge demand of food that is proportional to the
agriculture. Now we can strengthen capital based on the theory that the
“productivity of existing land does not decrease”. The CSWI (crop water stress
index) was existed everywhere before the past three decades. To tell us when to
irrigate with drip irrigation CSWI was packaged with surrounding air
temperatures, climatic pressure and infrared temperature measurements values.


Different types of communication mechanisms have
been implemented to provide the communication between the elements in the
network and network itself. Zigbee, WI-FI, Bluetooth, RF are the existing
Communication technologies that are used in the sensor network. RF technology
is chosen rather than other technologies because it provides the low cost and
lower energy consumption. The smart internet-based irrigation program is the
solution to all the problems mentioned above.





There is an in-numerous amount of analyses and
development in the grazing path and it is growing together at great speed.
Possible irrigation becomes a space for professional analysis within the IoT.
In the proposed system we are focusing specifically on the problem in the field
of cultivation The problems includes controlling the amount of water supplied
to the crop, monitoring soil moisture and soil pH value. Here, we are also
considering the fertility of the soil.


We can implement the soil moisture device within
the soil to notice the humidity inside the ground. But as a primary measure we
should always have a lot of information on the types of soil and also the
amount of water required for this. With this in mind, we will induce these
sensors. Nowadays, the most appropriate and the better method to irrigate the
field are to use drip irrigation. The above method is extremely convenient as
it reduces water waste and increases soil fertility. Another major problem
faced during the irrigation is soil erosion caused due to due to the
traditional approach; there are many possibilities for soil erosion. Another
appropriate parameter that will be projected for irrigation is the
evapotranspiration rate of the plant. Shortened as ET, evaptranspiration is the
base transpiration speed of the plant that believes in humidity, temperature,
plant density, wind speed, etc.



The proposed system- “crop
monitoring in wireless sensor networks” is useful for agricultural workers to
maintain accuracy in agriculture. The application helps to control the entire
company in a remote location via IOT. The application working in the sensor
network consists of wide verity of nodes. The sensors nodes are fixed either at
the root of the crop or inside the soil for varied purposes like collecting the
values of the ambient and soil parameters. These parameters include light, humidity,
soil moisture and temperature. The application that monitors crop contains two
sensors:  for example an image sensor and
a compiler of environmental parameters. These sensors get information on the crop,
soil condition, extract the readings of recorded soil moistures etc. and all
this data is copied to the cloud storage connected to the database through wireless transmission. This information is
stored in the primary database and then transferred to the Internet which is
then received by the users. All the processing is done at the server side only.
The Internet application is configured to analyze the received data and to
check the humidity and temperature threshold. The process of decision making is
done on the side server for automatic irrigation of the rig. If the recorded soil
moisture is less than a specific threshold, the motor will be switched ON and
if the threshold increases, the motor switches OFF. This approach can also be
used in greenhouses where light intensity can be controlled and automated. The complete
design of the system is shown in Fig. 1. In the given diagram we can clearly
seen how the components of the system is interconnected to each other through
wireless connection. All the required sensors are established and connected
with the Ardino Microcontroller. It is very important to maintain the proper
security measures to the Databases which holds the record of the all the data
such as the temperature, soil moisture and also the water level which are later given to the user through the
SMS. There should be some Data Processing and Decision Making in the Databases
and also automation in irrigation.




































The work profile is implementing
an automatic irrigation system together with the detection of soil moisture using
soil moisture sensor. The function of the entire model is as follows: The
soil’s moisture is measured with the help of the soil moisture sensor which is
interposed inside the soil. The soil moisture device is useful for measuring
soil conduction. As we all know, wet soil can have a larger conduction of dry
soil, the comparator is it integrated in it. The voltage generated by the teeth
and also the voltage of the threshold zone unit is compared. If the comparator’s
output is high, then we need to consider that the ground conditions are dry.
The sensors send all its data to the microcontroller through which the sensors
are connected.


The purpose of the microcontroller is to monitor
the data received by the sensors (output of sensors) without interruption. If
the amount of moisture recorded on the
ground is greater than the edge, the microcontroller displays a message that
mentions the constant data and the motor also switches off. Once the output
obtained from the soil moisture device is recorded bit high, then it ends up by
displaying the message as soil moisture is a smaller amount. Therefore, it
shows the corresponding knowledge and also the output of the microcontroller in
the alphanumeric screen, which is connected to the bottom of the semiconductor
unit. When the semiconductor unit is turned on, it can be promoted in such a
way that the relay coil induces power and starts the motor. The semiconductor
diode is activated to serve as an associated indicator. Every soil has
different thresholds of soil moisture. Since the sensor continuously detects
the soil moisture the motor is automatically turned on/off when the threshold is
low or high. This system is also designed to avoid the risk occurring to the
plants when the soil is not getting the corresponding threshold of moisture and
if the soil is being wet frequently.































Fig.2 Wireless Sensor Unit
































Block diagram of Irrigation control system



5.1 GSM module:


GSM module is a device which is used in many of the
IoT application. It is like a modem which works on the sim card and only works
after taking the subscription from that particular mobile operator.















Fig.4-GSM module

5.2 Soil moisture sensor


In both large and small scale modelling of
agriculture, the working of the system depends on content of moisture in the
soil. Crops always depend on the water moisture available near the roots rather
than the precipitation occurrence. We use soil moisture sensor to accomplish
the purpose of getting moisture information which is the key to the system. The
Soil moisture sensor has two terminals which can be used to pass electrons
using soil moisture as the medium. The moisture in the soil is determined by
the ratio of the electrons and accordingly the motor is turned ON and OFF for
the irrigation.











Fig.5-Soil Moisture sensor




5.3 ZigBee Module:


Zigbee Module comes under the 802.11 standards. The
range in which the Zigbee module is operated lies in the range of 2.4GHz
frequency bandwidth. Zigbee module can also be used for its one good property
that is it has the power saving mechanism. It can be used for all the different
classes of devices. Various transmission operations like broadcast can be done
by using this and the standard topology used is multiple star topologies.













Fig.6. Zigbee Module






The system is absolutely
effective in power consumption & the component used in the hardware. This
model is more helpful in minimizing the usage of water in the fields so that
there is an availability of water every time for other purposes like
electricity generation, our daily needs etc. By implementing this system in the
countries which are rich in agricultural domain shows the major benefit.  GSM technology helps user to control the motor
remotely from any place within the range of the used components by simply
sending SMS. This system mainly reduces the work of farmer since lot of manual
work is being done by them in the farms now-a-days. Thus this model will give
lots of relief to the farmers therefore it can reduce the effort of humans.
Since the model is eco-friendly and it has various characteristics such as: The
farmer can use this automatic system or he can operate the facilities manually
by switching between the two modes.. Since there are different methods for each
agriculture field all over the India therefore the system should be able to do
the same work in everywhere. Since this model is convenient for all types of
irrigation & to all climatic conditions.











Our work in the future is to improve the topology scheme to make all the
nodes communicate with each other, as well as to improve the wireless sensors
technologies in the domain of communication through a more efficient software
and hardware design. In particular it is an intelligent design of controlling the
irrigation system. It is mainly based on wireless networks of sensors and takes
the real time humidity measures as the input. Furthermore, the software
architecture can be designed and implemented the design and implementation for
the intelligent monitoring and controlling system. This requires infinite
improvements to be met with the diverse needs of the real world. The project
can be extended to greenhouses monitoring of the temperature and making the
system work automatically to modify the changes in the temperature. This all
principles can be extended to create a fully automated agricultural area
joining this framework with downpour water collecting an immense quantity of
water Holdings could an opportunity with make saved.

By implementing
this result, we can improve the traditional form of the crop irrigation program
in various regions of India.