Wisconsin Fast Plants Against Vibration Research Essay

Varying forms of plants are able to grow in a vast number of places and environments. Plants grow in the ocean, all throughout the land, and are able to sustain life in space. The environments that the plants survive in are varied greatly as well.

Different species react differently to exterior forces such as noise, temperature, and nutritional availability. People blame the differences of plant growth in urban areas from rural areas on pollution. Another factor that comes into play could be the constant vibration forces stressed upon those growths by the constant movement occurring from automobiles and other noises.Heavy amounts of vibration have been seen to be both harmful and helpful to life forms. Vibration therapy has been shown to increase bone density in a number of mammals such as deer and humans.

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While syndromes such as hand arm vibration syndrome effect people who are constantly under the effects of high frequency vibrations from their lines of work. There may be a parallel between the two effects of vibration of the two types of organisms. Whereas plants may either develop denser, stronger, cellular structures or acquire some sort of developmental problem due to the frequencies exerted upon it.Vibration, in terms of physics is defined as the limited reciprocating motion of a particle of an elastic body or medium in alternately opposite directions from its position of equilibrium. When vibration occurs, its subject is more often that not stationary and rooted to a surface which it is vibrating in relation to.

When talking about the effects that vibration has upon anything, Isaac Newton’s laws of motion come into play to a degree.1st Law of Motion: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. rd Law of Motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s first law of motion relates such that unless there is a force to cause the vibration, nothing will occur. His third law of motion is the main root of issues.When said that there is an equal and opposite reaction, movement occurs. This movement is sharp, sudden, and harmful if the theory is applied to high frequency human vibration. Humans can only withstand so much punishment before organ systems begin to fail or cause massive problems.

An overexposion to high frequencies can be damaging to structures. It is not known how vibration induced disturbances affect hand function. Recently an experiment described the hand function in twenty male workers with symptoms who had had been subjected to vibration by hand held tools for a mean duration of 24 years.

Functions such as handling manual tools, hand-writing, buttoning clothes, and handling books or papers were impaired in those patients and subjective symptoms such as dropping things, weakness of grip, sensory impairment and muscle cramp were common.This study was done on a sample of working men from Sweden. According to the data that the paper supplied, roughly 400,000 people are exposed to regular transmission of high impact vibration. Those people suffered from impaired dexterity, nimbleness, and impaired sensory activity which in other words, is nerve damage. If humans are able to sustain that kind of nerve damage from high frequency vibration for about 8-10 hours a day for 5-7 days a week for a few years, imagine the barrage of frequency laid upon plants on the median of a busy highway.This constant vibration could be a reason as to why you do not see as many flowering plants bloom near superhighways. Results from another experiment on humans show that the transmission of acceleration magnitude or energy to different parts of the hand and arm decreases with the distance from the source and are highly dependent in the vibration frequency. This supports the possibility that vibration exerted by vehicles hinder the growth of flowering plants close to highways, freeways, and other highly traveled roads.

There are also differences in the energy transmission due to different types of exposure, random or sinusoidal vibrations. Furthermore, the results show that a great amount of energy was absorbed in the human hand and arm within the frequency range 20 to 5000 Hz. It was also found that there were also differences in energy absorption due to gender; females absorbed less energy than males. Possibly caused due to the fact that generally females have lower bone density than males.

Vibration containing impact had a significant influence on both the energy absorption and the hand forces compared to vibration without impact.There were differences in the amount of absorbed energy in the hand and arm between the four investigated vibrating tools tested; the jackhammer, belt sander, chainsaw, and power drill. The vibration level also had a strong effect on the quantity of absorbed energy in present studies. If the assumption that higher amount of absorbed energy in the hand and arm represent and increased risk for injury, it can be concluded from the results in this thesis that high frequency vibration and impacts increase the risk for injury and unhealthiness. (Pierce, 2000) Vibration therapy has its many uses and applications.It is used to help people and animals recover from bone matter loss. Recently, an Italian Cosmonaut returned from his voyage and had been found to have suffered some bone density loss.

He is undergoing vibration therapy every day of the week. By simply exercising when he is on a large vibrating plate, moving to a frequency of 55 hertz. During the past decade there has been a rebirth of interest in vibration therapy; several studies have confirmed the effects of and have refined the practice. Vibration works best if it is applied at around 100 Hz near the area of discomfort with a moderate amount of pressure.Time also becomes important as well, as this must be maintained for about 45 min.

Lower frequencies, less pressure, or shorter duration all reduce effectiveness. However, a few patients will experience increased pain due to vibration. (Bosco, et al , 1999) The benefits are most distinct in pain coming from nerve or muscle discomfort.

It used to be thought that hyper stimulation analgesia was produced by an acupuncture-like mechanism, by distraction, by self-hypnosis, or simply as a result of suggestion in a patient who is desperate enough to believe anything.Vibration does not work from within the organism itself, endogenously, but probably via a pre-gate or efferent control system. Most workers agree that large-diameter afferents from low-threshold rapidly adapting receptors and/or Pacinian corpuscles are involved Whether the subsequent response is segmental or via diffuse noxious inhibitory controls is unclear. (Torebjork, 1974) The noxious control mechanism provides a much more satisfactory explanation not only for the development of analgesia but also for its persistence far beyond the usual period for techniques such as transcutaneous, or “through the skin”, nerve stimulation.

There has been increased interest in the use of vibration for facial pain management, with excellent results being reported; other applications are well described but little used. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation still holds a very large share of the market for stimulation-produced pain relief; vibration is simple, safe, and highly effective and has the added advantage of being cheap to start up and maintain treatment centers. Of the vast amount of possible frequencies, there is only a small portion of it available to humans. We call this the Audio Spectrum. It ranges from 20 hertz(Hz) to 20 kilohertz(kHz).In the frequency range of 10 kHz to 20 kHz (very high) there is not much energy or musical content, it is perceived as a soft hissing sound.

The range of 5 kHz to 10 kHz (high) is where we perceive the “brightness” of a sound. It has all of the high pitched notes and is the sound of a more defined hiss. The 2. 5 kHz to 5 kHz frequency range (upper). Is the range where ears are the most sensitive. This is the level where overall sharpness of sound is created. The mid band is comprised of two distinct “sub bands”.

The 800 Hz to 2. 5 kHz (upper mid) band adds to the effects of the upper band.This is generally where the treble gets pumped and most of the sound’s richness comes from here. The second portion of the mid band is the 315 Hz to 800 Hz (lower mid), this range has lots of upper resonance and sounds as if it is a droning hum. The 160 Hz to 315 Hz range consists of the sound of lower horns and has lots of lower resonance.

The bass band 20 Hz to 160 Hz is where most of vibration energy is found. This level contains low sounding vibrations which has a very high power output. Putting together this information it would seem as if there can be a parallel between plant and human effects of vibration.