Chapter 1: Introduction and Background
“ Historical analyses of images of adult females have reported that the preferable adult females ‘s organic structure has become systematically smaller over the past century ” ( Ogden 2003 p.71 ) . In the in-between ages, libertine, chubby figures were seen as titillating and stylish. In art, pictures of adult females were depicted as holding rounded hips and full chests. ( Grogan 1999 )
However this changed in the 1920 ‘s with the debut of the flapper expression. This is when the idealization of narrow margin foremost occurred. Silverstone et Al ( 1986 ) reported that adult females at this clip adult females used famishment diets and jump their chests in order to accomplish the ideal organic structure. The ideal organic structure image changed once more to a more bosomy one following the 1950s with actresses such as Marilyn Monroe who was celebrated for her big hips and chests.
However, this was short lived and the organic structure size seen in the 1920 ‘s returned during the 1960 ‘s. Fashion, peculiarly demanded a really thin organic structure. This can be personified with theoretical accounts like Twiggy and Jean Shrimpton. This tendency to hold an highly thin organic structure in manner has continued to the present twenty-four hours, detonating in the late 1990 ‘s with the media ‘s coverage of the size nothing phenomenon.
In a study by BEAT ( 2007 ) , the UK ‘s prima charity for people with eating upsets and their households, they found that “ The craze that surrounded the alleged ‘size nothing ‘ argument did small to edify sentiment, or dispute entrenched misconceptions. It deflected attending from the substantial issue of an unhealthily thin aesthetic. ”
Size nothing is an American adult females ‘s vesture size equivalent to a United Kingdom size 4. However, this was so adopted to mention to highly thin adult females and the tendencies associated with them. The adult females ‘s magazine industry has given size zero extended coverage and hence made it more fecund. In 2005, Heat magazine published an issue having the “ 20 skinniest famous persons ” ( Byrne 2005 ) . In 2001, Frost stated that the media portraiture of famous persons might be linked to the organic structure dissatisfaction shown by immature adult females with their weight and the alleged rise in eating upsets among immature adult females.
This research examines magazines that are preponderantly read by adult females and the discourse and imagination within them environing the size nothing phenomenon. The survey will detect whether or non the magazine content glamourises a slender organic structure and hence puts force per unit area on immature adult females to draw a bead on to be thin. The magazines that will be examined will hold a high readership of adult females aged 17-25.
The magazine industry is a multi-million lb concern within the United Kingdom. Magazines have become even more popular since publishing houses have realised that they could bring forth and publish magazines for niche groups productively. ( McKay 2006 ) Magazines that are produced particularly for adult females are successful and exist really productively.
However, in recent old ages, magazines in the adult females ‘s market have come under increasing examination for bring forthing a thin ideal that is unapproachable for most adult females. Maggie Wykes and Barrie Gunter ( 2006 ) remark that at the terminal of the 20th century a “ moral terror ” was evident in the intelligence media. The image of wellness and strength that was seen throughout the 1980 ‘s was being replaced with “ frail muliebrity ” . Heroin smart dominated the manner industry.
This imagination was associated with immature theoretical accounts that were emaciated and sunken eyed. This expression so proliferated into adult females ‘s manner magazines. ( Wykes and Gunter 2006 p.65-66 ) This led to the UK Women ‘s curate Tessa Jowell, organizing a organic structure acme at Downing street with a top modeling bureau, Storm, and a adolescent magazine, Jump, to discourse the pre-occupation that adult females have with “ experiencing that they do n’t look right, that they do n’t run into the criterions of thin theoretical accounts in immature adult females ‘s magazines ” ( BBC News 2000 ) .
However, in 2009 and at the start of 2010, possibly there has been a alteration in adult females ‘s magazines. First, Alexandra Shulman, editor of the United Kingdom edition of Vogue, wrote a missive to some of the universes taking interior decorators. This accused them of “ forcing of all time thinner theoretical accounts into manner magazines despite widespread public concern over ‘size-zero ‘ theoretical accounts ” .
Shulman feels that magazines have to engage theoretical accounts with “ stick outing castanetss and no chests or hips ” through providing really little sample size garments for exposure shoots. ( Pavia 2009 ) In an interview with the telegraph Shulman notes, “ There is a existent feeling that an grasp of more diverse forms is what people want. I think it will alter but slower that I would wish. ” ( Nikkhah 2009 )
Besides, Brigette, Germany ‘s most popular magazine vowed to utilize merely existent adult females in the exposure shoots within the magazine. The editor of the magazine has said that this move is due to ailments from readers who felt no connexion with the adult females portrayed in magazines. ( Connolly 2009 ) This is non the first clip that reader ‘s ideas on size nothing have influenced a magazine editor. Cindi Leive editor of US Glamour, late blogged that her magazine is perpetrating to having a greater scope of organic structure types within the pages after having letters of congratulations after having a theoretical account with a “ of course curvey pot ” in the September 2009 issue. ( Leive 2009 )
It has been said that one of the strongest communicators to adult females is the mass media. Now more than of all time the media, and particularly magazines aiming adult females, are accused of act uponing adult females in footings of visual aspect and organic structure image ( Lokken et al 2004 ) . In the United Kingdom entirely, 1.6 million people are affected by eating upsets ( BEAT 2010 ) . Although this is seen as a psychological issue, it is of import to look at the influence that the media, in peculiar adult females ‘s magazines, have on adult females ‘s organic structure image.
However, the United Kingdom is a preponderantly corpulent civilization. It is of import to look at whether these adult females do still experience that magazines consequence how they look at their ain organic structures and supercharge them to achieve an ideal size or whether they feel indifference to the images being presented.
Purposes and aims
The purpose of the research is to look at the wide spectrum of adult females ‘s magazines and to analyze the attitudes that they have towards size nothing and excessively thin organic structure types.
The aims to carry through this purpose are as follows:
- To analyze adult females ‘s magazines, their portraiture of thin adult females and the discourse environing the size nothing phenomenon.
- To research whether adult females ‘s magazines do promote immature adult females to draw a bead on to a thin organic structure size or if it is society and civilization in general.
- To measure the effects that magazines have on immature adult females ( 17-25 twelvemonth olds ) and their thought of perfect organic structure size and image.
- To research whether ingestion of adult females ‘s magazines has an consequence on why some adult females aspire to be thin and others do non look to hold the same aspirations.
Chapter 2 Methodology
This chapter aims to explicate the methods that were utilized when transporting out this survey into adult females ‘s magazines and the sensationalisation of slenderness.
In order to carry through the aims that were set out, extended primary, secondary, quantitive and qualitative research was carried out.
To supply more convincing consequences, it was of import to transport out different methods of research to confirm the consequences that were found. In order to make this, methodological triangulation was drawn upon. Denzin ( 2006 ) defined this as utilizing more than one method to garner informations, such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, and paperss.
In this instance, the triangulation used academic literature, quantitative content analysis and qualitative focal point groups. A triangulation diagram is placed in appendix A of the survey. This method allowed the research worker to obtain a greater apprehension of the subject, whilst besides bring forthing consequences that were more valid and dependable.
Primary research can be defined as original research that is carried out first manus by the research worker ( Stokes 2003 ) . It includes both quantitative and qualitative methods. This research used content analysis and concentrate groups as the primary research methods.
The primary focal point of the research is to analyze the degree and type of coverage that adult females ‘s magazines give to the idealization of a thin and slender organic structure. The research method chosen to make this was through content analysis. “ The intent of the method is to place and number the happening of specified word pictures or dimensions of texts, and through this, to be able to state something about the messages, images, representations of such texts ad their wider societal significance ” ( Hansen et al 1998 ) .
One advantage of content analysis is that although it is a quantitative method, it can besides be used to supply qualitative consequences ( Stokes 2003 ) . Although content analysis does besides hold negatives, they are normally overcome through careful consideration of the classs of analysis that are defined.
Alternatively of transporting out an analysis with a really precise focal point, where single words are used as a trying unit, it was decided to utilize a subjects analysis. This type of analysis “ relies on the programmer to utilize certain subjects or thoughts in the text and so to apportion these to predetermined classs ” ( Deacon et al 2007 p.121 ) .
The texts on which the analysis took topographic point, other wise known as the primary beginnings, are a assortment of magazines marketed towards adult females. For the intent of the survey the mark age group established was adult females aged between 17 and 25. For each of the magazines, 2 issues of a scope of six magazines were analysed from February and April 2010. All of the issues that were used will be found within the mentions of this study.
The content analysis was split into three capable countries ; magazine articles, manner characteristics and magazine advertisement. It was so examined to look at the figure of thin adult females found in advertisement images, thin manner images and to look at the figure of thin messages that were found within the articles. Articles that did non advance a thin ideal or have any messages sing weight were non included in the survey.
Once this was carried out, computations so occurred to demo the per centum of coverage that each magazine gives to the thin ideal, the per centum of each type of coverage be it images or words and besides allowed for a comparing of the wide spectrum of magazines that were studied. The coding sheets that were used to transport out the analysis are placed as appendix B of this study. A glossary of footings that were used when transporting out the analysis can be found in appendix C.
It would hold been preferred to transport out a longer analysis of content in order to look at the historical alteration of magazines since the size nothing phenomena occurred. However, due to clip restraints and besides issues of handiness this was non possible.
The Primary Beginnings
The primary beginnings that were used in the analysis were magazines that had a high readership of adult females aged between 17 and 25. The magazines were both hebdomadal and monthly publications from February and April 2010. Monthly publications are marked as March and April due to how magazines are printed and published.
The research aims to quantify the content of magazines that are marketed at adult females in order to carry through nonsubjective 1, to analyze adult females ‘s magazines, their portraiture of size nothing adult females and the discourse environing the phenomenon, and besides nonsubjective 2, to research whether adult females ‘s magazines do promote immature adult females to draw a bead on to size zero or if it is society and civilization in general. The magazine picks are justified in appendix D.
In order to carry through nonsubjective three, to measure the effects that magazines have on immature adult females ( 17-25 twelvemonth olds ) and their thought of perfect organic structure size and image and besides nonsubjective four, to research whether ingestion of adult females ‘s magazines has an consequence on why some adult females aspire to be thin and others do non look to hold the same aspirations, it was required to utilize a more qualitative research method.
The method that was chosen was to transport out focal point groups. Focus groups allow an apprehension of audience attitudes and behaviors to be researched. Transporting out a focal point group is where “ 6 to 12 people are interviewed at the same time, with a moderator taking the respondents in comparatively unstructured treatment about the focal subject. ” ( Wimmer and Dominick 2006 p128 ).
The method for carry throughing aims three and four changed from the proposal. When composing the proposal it was decided to transport out interviews, nevertheless in order to acquire a wider scope and more diverse positions on the subject this changed to concentrate groups. The chief grounds for altering to utilize this method are outlined in Hansen et Al ( 1998 p.258 ) who gave 2 advantages of focal point groups:
“ ( I ) group interviews are more cost efficient than single interviews- a wider scope of people can be interviewed within the same restrictions of clip, resources, and research money ; and ( two ) groups allow the research worker to detect how audiences make sense of media through conversation and interaction with each other. ”
The research worker is really of import when transporting out focal point group research. The treatment must be monitored and no prejudice must be formed. The research worker has to stay impartial throughout. Ward and Hansen ( 1987 ) experience that “ the moderator of a focal point group lets the treatment scope while it is traveling fruitfully and bring forthing utile remark. Tasks include doing certain that chief points are covered, being receptive to new points that arise, and doing certain that each respondent has a opportunity to speak. ” ( Ward and Hansen 1987 p.178 )
For this research, two focal point group interviews were carried out with six participants in each. This allowed the research worker to command the treatment so that it did non divert excessively far from the subject in manus. In Hansen et Al ( 1998 ) it is felt that the consensus for focal point group size is between six to ten participants because if the group was larger it would let less vocal and less confident participants to conceal behind those that are more out spoken and out traveling. Smaller groups allow all of the participants to be involved and hence the research worker gathers more diverse sentiments. However, in one of the focal point groups, merely five participants were available as one participant was unable to come.
As the research is focused on females, specifically in the 17-25 age scope, all of the participants of the focal point groups fell into this class. The sample of participants was broad and covered a broad scope of backgrounds and varied organic structure types and forms.
The sample featured one 17 twelvemonth old, two 18 twelvemonth olds, one 19 twelvemonth old, one 20 twelvemonth old, one 21 twelvemonth olds, two 22 twelvemonth olds, one 23 twelvemonth old, one 24 twelvemonth olds and a 25 twelvemonth old. The participants came chiefly form Aberdeen but besides Aberdeenshire, Edinburgh and Saint Andrews. The participants were both pupils and in full-time work and included jurisprudence pupils, direction pupils, college pupils, manner retail helpers and nurses. This meant that consequences from the focal point group were more varied.
Using focal point groups can hold ethical deductions as sensitive and sometimes private issues are being discussed amongst a group of persons. To decide this, an debut to the subject was given along with a presentment of confidentiality and how it was traveling to be achieved was read out at the beginning of each focal point group. This can be found as appendix Tocopherol of this study.
Oral permission was already gained from the participants but to guarantee that the participants understood what was expected of them, written consent was besides obtained before the focal point group was carried out. An illustration of this signifier can be found as appendix F. This besides allowed for any relevant inside informations about the participants to be obtained. This subject of this survey deals with nil that can be considered harmful or damaging and an ethical considerations declaration was filled out when composing the proposal for the research.
The inquiries that were asked in the focal point groups are found in appendix G. Alongside these, a scope of magazine articles and images were used to show the subject being studied and besides to maintain the group on the subject more easy.
Having pre-determined inquiries meant that each focal point group and besides any future research could be more easy replicated.
Secondary research is the aggregation of work that has already been completed by other writers. It is used to assist understand the research that has already occurred and to derive a broader cognition of the subject.
Having already established a preliminary literature reappraisal in the research proposal, the writer continued to turn up and research resources both in the university library and besides through on-line beginnings. The secondary research that was gathered came from a assortment of beginnings both academic and other including books, diary articles and newspaper articles.
The chief scheme for bring outing secondary beginnings has been through dividing the subject into chief countries and related subjects. The keywords were so substituted with equivalent word, acronyms and plurals in hunts. The list of equivalent word and hunt words will be placed in appendix A. The chief hunts have taken topographic point on diary databases, the Robert Gordon University library hunt engine, Google Books and besides on Amazon. Another scheme for happening relevant secondary beginnings was through the adult females and media faculty at university. This covered magazines and how they disseminate feminine ideals.
As the subject trades with communicating and media surveies, the chief diary databases that have been searched are Sage diaries and Emerald because this is where the most relevant academic diaries will be found. ASSIA Internet has besides been searched because the subject that is being studied is besides linked to societal scientific disciplines and psychological science. Another scheme for happening appropriate diary articles was that any mentions used in them were searched for and reviewed for rightness. The chief diaries that have yielded any articles of involvement include the diary of Communication Research, the European Journal of Communication and the Journal of Communication. Within psychology the chief diaries that appeared were Sex Roles, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology and Media Psychology.
The literature studied covered a broad capable country. It was of import to look at how the word picture of the female organic structure has changed within the media over clip, the consequence that this word picture in the media has on adult females with a focal point on adult females ‘s magazines and besides to look at other countries that may act upon immature adult females when looking at their organic structure image.
The nature of the research meant that a figure of magazines had to be purchased. This was non annoying as magazines were already purchased by the research worker on a regular footing.
Some of the secondary literary research was non available in local libraries and hence had to be purchased. The usage of the interlibrary loan was non needed as it was felt that the any books required through this would be needed for an drawn-out period of clip and hence were purchased.
In order to enter the focal point groups, a Dictaphone was required. This was obtained from The Robert Gordon University. The focal point groups were carried out in a impersonal and comfy environment within the university.
Chapter 3: Literature Reappraisal
A elaborate survey of relevant literature has been undertaken in order to further cognition of adult females ‘s magazines, the thin ideal that they contain and besides the supposed effects that they have on immature adult females ‘s organic structure image. A reappraisal of the influence that society and civilization as a whole has on female organic structure image has besides been carried out, as adult females ‘s magazines can non be blamed wholly for the arrested development with tenuity that immature adult females are said to hold.
Body image was foremost defined as “ The image of our ain organic structure which we form in our head, that is to state, the manner in which the organic structure appears to ourselves. ” ( Schlinder 1950 p.11 ) . However, since this term was coined in 1950, it has become instead out-of-date. Since this term was coined, research workers have developed this to see organic structure image as perceptual experience of 1s organic structure attraction, deformation of organic structure size, thoughts of organic structure boundaries and besides perceptual experience of bodily esthesiss ( Fisher 1990 ).
Therefore, possibly a more advanced definition comes from Sarah Grogan ( 1999 ) who says that organic structure image can now be defined as “ A individual ‘s perceptual experiences, ideas or feelings about his or her ain organic structure ” ( Grogan 1999 p.1 ) . This definition is the working definition that organic structure image will mention to throughout this research paper.
Research has found that organic structure image is linked to self-esteem, emotional stableness, eating wonts, the prolongation of eating upsets and other related psychological wellness jobs. ( Gunther and Wykes 1999 )
Body image is said to develop as a map of civilization as a response to cultural aesthetic ideals ( Rudd and Lennon 2001 ) Derenne and Beresinc ( 2006 ) agree with this stating that civilization itself helps to make organic structure image through relationships with household, friends and spouses, public figures and famous persons and possibly most significantly the media. The media at nowadays are said to perpetuate and laud unrealistic criterions of beauty and organic structure image.
Kristen Harrison ( 2000 p 121 ) defines thin ideal media as “ portraitures of tenuity as a desirable trait in and of itself or at least a trait which accompanies other desirable traits as the most beautiful, desirable and successful ” It has been shown that magazines fail to show a diverse scope of organic structure types and promote tenuity as coveted and as the norm for adult females ( Harper and Tiggemann 2008 ) . Posovac et Al ( 1998 ) besides agree with this position and describe that the current media images of ideal female beauty stress tenuity.
Wolf ( 1991 ) besides emphasized that the ideal that the media concepts is impossible to achieve for the bulk of adult females and may take to them holding feelings of insufficiency. Research has shown that organic structure image is a big concern for adult females. A study carried out in the United States, found that in 1985 three out of 10 of the female participants said that they felt unhappy with their visual aspect, in 1993 this had risen to about one in two ( Cash and Henry 1995 ) .
Although this survey is instead outdated, the consequences have been replicated many times. in one survey, 15 % of participants said that they would give 5 old ages of their lives to be the ideal weight for them. Theses surveies focused on American adult females. Wykes and Gunter ( 2006 ) give an overview of the grounds of the organic structure dissatisfaction happening within the United Kingdom. These are largely carried out in adult females ‘s magazines. The surveies found that half of the sample of 5000 adult females classified themselves as being fleshy and more than eight in 10 said that they felt self-aware of their organic structures and that their life would better if they felt happy with their organic structure. This survey was carried out in 2000 and is hence timely.
Culture, Society and Body Image
Although adult females ‘s magazines are frequently criticized for their function in making a thin ideal organic structure image for adult females, it is of import to analyze other countries such as the cultural influences and society in the Western universe and the consequence that they have on adult females ‘s organic structure image.
“ In western societies particularly, a general penchant for a thin organic structure form has become established as the norm… For over 30 old ages in Western societies immature females have reported more positive attitudes towards a little organic structure size and a thin build ” ( Wykes and Gunter 2006 p6 ) . This point of view has been backed up with assorted surveies that have occurred over many old ages.
In 1978, Hilde Bruch found that a thin organic structure form is associated with success personally, professionally and socially. She argued that adult females are expected to hold successful callings, intelligence, be competent and ambitious yet at the same clip desirable and feminine. Bruch is a celebrated university professor who has published many books and diary articles about eating upsets. Therefore this book focused chiefly on eating upsets, how they begin, and focuses on instance surveies of patients enduring from anorexia and binge-eating syndrome.
Sarah Grogan ( 1999 ) besides writes about the cultural stereotypes of fat and thin that exist within the West. Grogan is a known faculty member within the psychological science and mental wellness field. The book besides looks at the dissatisfaction that work forces and kids have with their organic structures, which is irrelevant for the research being undertaken. The book is written from many positions. This makes the research less biased.
Grogan hypothesises that “ poorer civilizations ( where tenuity may mean negative factors such as poorness and/or disease ) are more likely to value embonpoint ; whereas flush civilizations ( where tenuity may be associated with self-denial and self-denial in the face of plentifulness ) are more likely to value slenderness. ” ( Grogan 1999 p.20 ) This would therefore history for the adoration of thin that occurs within the by and large flush United Kingdom.
Grogan besides points out that slenderness is by and large associated with felicity, success, juvenility and societal acceptableness. All of these have positive intensions, whereas being over-weight is linked to laziness, deficiency of will power and being out of control. She states that being overweight is seen as unattractive and associated with other negative features.
This research can be supported with the many academic surveies that have been carried out around this subject. This includes the survey carried out by Marika Tiggemann and Esther Rothblum ( 1988 ) . This survey was carried out on groups of American and Australian college pupils. The job with this survey is that it merely takes into history college pupils and non the general population and besides the research into adult females ‘s magazines that is being carried out is taking topographic point within the United Kingdom. However, both Australia and America are flush and have a similar civilization that can be found within the United Kingdom.
The research besides included both male and female participants, instead than this research, which is concentrating on merely females. In the survey, the research workers found that both male and female participants from both civilizations had negative stereotypes of fat ; less-happy, more self-indulgent, less self-assured, less self-restraining, lazier and less attractive than thin people. They besides found that these negative stereotypes were more pronounced for opinions of fat adult females instead than fat males. They besides found that all of the participants whether corpulence or thin had negative stereotypes of fat.
In Helen Malson, The Thin Woman ( 1998 p.104 ) , she describes the manner that the “ female organic structure is ramblingly constructed and regulated in modern-day Western civilization through the societal meanings accorded to personify weight and form ” . The Thin Woman is written from a women’s rightist and post-structuralist position. Malson discusses how fat and thin organic structures have cultural significances. Through legion interviews that she conducted, she divided the personal features into negative fat features and positive thin features.
The participants noted that a fat ego was constructed as ugly, unattractive and black whereas a thin ego was seen as extremely desirable and associated with felicity. However, the participants that she interviewed were all diagnosed as anorectic therefore non giving a existent penetration into the wide spectrum of females in the western civilization. This shows the idealization of tenuity that occurs within the western universe. Most adult females in the West see fat as ugly and this as beautiful.
Malson goes on to discourse that the building of a thin organic structure is “ steadfastly embedded within a romantic cultural narration. Within a romantic discourse, a slender organic structure is needed to pull a adult male to salvage the adult female ; this can be seen in assorted fairy tales and romantic fictions. Malson states “ being thin is therefore constructed as a form of romantic muliebrity. ” ( Malson 1998 p.107 ) . When looking at magazines that are placed in the female market, the same theories can be applied.
Many research workers have besides theorised that in the western universe, being overweight has intensions of a deficiency of control. Helen Malson found that the participants that she surveyed felt that a “ thin-anorexic organic structure ” is a controlled organic structure whereas on the other manus, being overweight “ signifies a deficiency of control ” . She says that being thin is “ construed as portion of the ‘perfection ideal ‘ of being in control. ”
A thin organic structure means more than merely being in control of organic structure weight but besides “ being in control of your life. ” her participants noted that “ the thin organic structure is valued… non so much for its beauty as for its being the merchandise, the cogent evidence, of self-denial. ” ( Malson 1998 p.121-122 ) However, as said before, Malson merely surveyed adult females who were diagnosed as being anorectic.
Therefore, this positive intension of being in control may merely echo with adult females who are in ownership of a thin organic structure ; they may experience that they are in control when non eating. Womans who do non hold this “ ideal ” thin organic structure may experience that they do non hold to be in control of what they eat to be in control if their life.
The consequence that the western civilization has on organic structure image can be demonstrated with the spread of eating upsets and organic structure dysmorphia through the remainder of the universe. Susan Bordo ( 2003 ) , in Intolerable Weight, recalls a survey carried out by Anne Becker. In this Becker surveies the Fiji Islands. Before 1995, Fiji had no telecasting entree. A individual channel was introduced airing plans from the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia.
Before telecasting was introduced, Fiji had no reported instances of anorexia and most females there were comfy in their organic structures no affair what form or size that they were. Three old ages after the station was introduced, over half of the females surveyed reported that they had dieted in the old months and 11 per centum reported that they had vomited to seek to command their weight. This survey may hold more to make with the consequence that the media in the West has on organic structure ideals instead than the civilization that exists.
In 1980, Garner et al carried out a survey into the cultural outlooks of tenuity in adult females. This looked at the cultural stereotypes of feminine beauty ; Miss America victors and Playboy theoretical accounts. In the research, the research workers looked at the reported tallness and weight measurings of Miss America pageant victors from 1960 to 1978. This indicated that the weights of victors had decreased over clip. Prior to 1970, the average weight of the contestants was about 88 % of the population norm.
Following 1970, average weight of the contestants had decreased to 85 % . The findings were besides similar for Playboy centerfolds. They besides found that whilst female theoretical accounts had been going dilutant, the mean American had become heavier. In an updated survey into this by Wiseman et Al ( 1990 ) , they found that this tendency continued from 1979 to 1988.
The beginnings of information are both believable academic beginnings, nevertheless the surveies focused on adult females who are expected to hold a slender organic structure type. The force per unit area for pageant misss and playboy theoretical accounts does non merely come from societies outlooks and stereotypes of the organic structure type that these misss must hold but besides from within the media industry.
Media Effect on Body Image
“ The cultural criterion of beauty in relation to organic structure form is promulgated, to a important grade, via the major mass media. ” ( Wykes and Gunter 2006 p.8 ) . Many surveies point the finger at the mass media for the Numberss of females within the western universe who are dissatisfied with their organic structure, perceive themselves to be fleshy and want to be thinner. Hesse-Biber ( 2007 ) estimates that around 56 % of adult females feel dissatisfied with their organic structures.
The media to a great extent emphasises that a thin organic structure is beautiful and is seen as ideal. A survey carried out by Raphael and Lacey ( 1992 ) found that telecasting portrays a thin organic structure as being normal. More shockingly they found that a big figure of female characters ( 69 % ) had a organic structure type that could be said as being thin and anorectic.
More late, a survey carried out by Greenberg et Al ( 2003 ) examined 56 telecasting series from 1999 and 2000. They found that thin adult females were over-represented, a 3rd of American telecasting characters are scraggy compared to 5 per centum of the American population. Although both surveies are American, many popular situation comedies and telecasting series that are shown in the United Kingdom are imported from the United States.
Hawkynss et al carried out another survey into the media and the portraiture of a thin organic structure ideal in 2004. This is more recent and has similar findings to the survey carried out by Raphael and Lacey. However, this research looks at media as a whole instead than concentrating merely on one media mercantile establishment. They established that the images of adult females presented throughout the media are typically 15 % below the recommended norm weight for adult females.
They found that adult females are normally tall, with narrow hips, long legs and thin thighs. Hawkins et Al besides theorize that the thin-ideal weight adult females seen within the media have besides become of all time thinner. This can be seen in a survey carried out by Percy and Lautman ( 1994 ) . This was found within Advertising, Weight Loss, and Eating Disorders by E. Clark, T. Brock, and D. Stewart. They found that in 1894, the ideal organic structure that featured in an advert was five foot four inches and weighed 140lb, had a 37 inch flop and 38 inch waist. This so slimmed down in 1947 and once more in 1970 to being five pes eight inches and weighing merely 118lb.
Although there was no farther research after 1970, the theoretical accounts on Storm Model Agency ‘s web site are at least five pes 10s and normally have a 23 inch waist and a 34 inch flop. Silverstein et Al ( 1986 ) found that the organic structure form in telecasting is slimmer for adult females than work forces. Participants besides rated 69 % of female characters as thin. The same applied to adult females ‘s magazines, which featured more messages to remain slim than work forces ‘s magazines. Although this survey is over 20 old ages old, it shows that the media ( whether magazines, telecasting, advertisement or movie ) continuously portray a thin organic structure form and ideal.
In a survey carried out by Heinberg and Thomson ( 1992 ) , they found that adult females are more likely to utilize famous persons more than groups such as household, schoolmates, pupils, and famous persons to compare their organic structure image. This is an illustration of societal comparing theory where an single establishes their personal individuality, through comparing themselves with others. ( Festinger 1954 ) .
In this instance the property being compared is body image. This survey was carried out in the United States non in Great Britain and the participants were all undergraduate pupils, which does non give a true representation of society. Besides, although this survey took topographic point over ten old ages ago, famous person civilization and the compulsion with famous persons that exists has intensified therefore the organic structure comparing that exists may hold intensified.
The fact that the media is showing an ever-thinner ideal and that research shows immature adult females do compare their organic structure image to the representations seen within the media can be unsafe. In 2006, Gayle Bessenoff carried out a survey into the societal comparing that adult females make with the media and the consequence that this has. She described this as upward societal comparing theory ; comparing with others that are deemed to be socially better which so leads to a negative temper and negative image.
Bessenoff found that comparing with the thin ideal seen in the media can take to higher degrees of feelings of dejection, low self-esteem peculiarly with visual aspect, increased degrees of depressive ideas and besides a general lessening in organic structure satisfaction. Bessenoff is an American professor who has carried out multiple surveies in this field. The survey came from a sociological and psychological position. These negative effects that Bessenoff found have been replicated in many other academic surveies adding farther credibleness to the findings.
Harper and Tiggemann ( 2008 ) carried out research into the consequence of thin ideal media images on adult females ‘s self-objectification, temper and organic structure image. The survey examined the effects that media image had on the self-objectification of 90 Australian undergraduate adult females aged 18-35. The participants were all from a first twelvemonth category analyzing psychological science within the same university.
This may intend that the consequences would be narrow as the participants may all have similar backgrounds and civilizations. Participants were split into 3 groups and each viewed a set of images. One viewed magazine advertizements having a thin adult female, another featured a thin adult female with at least one attractive adult male and the concluding group viewed advertizements in which no people were featured. The participants who viewed the images that contained a thin adult female reported a higher degree of self-objectification, weight related anxiousness, higher degrees of organic structure dissatisfaction and low temper.
This shows that the thin-ideal image does non merely hold to concentrate on the adult female ‘s organic structure in order to hold a negative consequence on adult females. This is of import as many advertizements and images seen in adult female ‘s magazines cut down adult females ‘s organic structures to parts for illustration, a thin arm or carpus may be shown to advance a ticker.
It has been found that these “ body-isms ” ( Hall and Crum 1994 ) can frequently advance a higher degree of organic structure dissatisfaction in adult females than sing an image of a full thin organic structure ( Tiggemann and McGill 2004 ) . Again, this was an Australian survey. Tiggemann has written many articles looking at the media and organic structure image and is an academic within the psychological science field.
In a survey carried out by Harrison and Cantor ( 1997 ) , they looked at college adult females ‘s media usage and the relationship with broken eating symptomatology, organic structure dissatisfaction and thrust for tenuity. They besides looked at males and their blessing of tenuity for themselves and for adult females. Although this survey is non interested in males media usage and effects, the attitudes that males have towards adult females is valid and has been examined within the civilization and society subdivision of this literature reappraisal.
The research workers found that media use did predict negative effects such as eating-disorder symptoms, thrust for a thin organic structure and organic structure dissatisfaction. They besides found that magazine reading was a more changeless forecaster than telecasting screening. This has besides been found in surveies such as Kim and Lennon ( 2007 ) . This survey looked specifically at thinness-depicting ad thinness-promoting media. The survey had a big figure of participants ( 232 ) .
However, the participants were all undergraduate pupils from communicating classs at the same university. The pupils were dispersed through the 4 old ages of the classs and the bulk were white and middle-class. Harrison so replicated this survey on 366 striplings ( 2000 ) . This was non relevant to this survey as it was deemed to be unethical to utilize bush leagues in the research.
Harrison carried out a farther survey with Taylor and Marske ( 2006 ) . This survey looked at the consequence that thin-ideal images and text have on adult females and work forces ‘s eating behavior. Again this survey does non look at work forces so this country of research is non relevant. The 222 female participants viewed slides picturing images of slender female theoretical accounts with no text, images of thin female theoretical accounts with exercising and diet related text, irrelevant text and besides no slides as a control step.
The participants for this survey were more spread coming from 2 universities non merely the 1. The survey found that adult females, who already had a organic structure image disagreement with perceptual experiences of their ain organic structure and the organic structure of same gender equals, Ate less in forepart of female equals after sing both images entirely and images with text. Although the survey looked at the consequence on feeding, which does non associate to the research being carried out, it merely adds to the negative effects that the media are said to hold on immature adult females.
Vaughan and Fouts ( 2003 ) besides looked at consequence that telecasting screening and magazine reading have on adolescent misss and eating upset symptomatology. This was done at two times, 16 months apart. They found that the misss who increased their exposure to manner magazines but decreased the figure of hours that they viewed telecasting increased eating upset symptomatology.
When diminishing both, the symptomatology besides decreased. This survey merely examined school age misss which is non relevant to the survey but this shows that magazine reading has more of an consequence than telecasting sing for this age group. The research workers believe that this is because magazine reading “ involves more emotional investing, closer scrutiny of thin theoretical accounts… and societal comparings than telecasting screening. The findings here are similar to those found by Harrison and Cantor ( 1997 ) .
Malkin, Wornian and Chrisler ( 1999 ) carried out a content analysis looking specifically at magazines and the gendered messages associating to organic structure visual aspect within them. However, the focal point was non merely on adult females ‘s magazines but besides on work forces ‘s magazines. They consequences sing work forces ‘s magazines are non needed.
The research workers found that 78 % of the 69 adult females ‘s magazine covers that they examined contained a message about bodily visual aspect, 94 % of the screens showed a thin female theoretical account or famous person, 25 % contained at odds messages about weight loss and dietetic wonts and the placement of weight related messages besides suggested that weight loss would take to an improved life. Although this survey looked at magazines and the content within them, it did non look at how this would impact readers.
A farther content analysis survey was carried out by Gunther and Wykes ( 2006 ) . This analysed six popular adult females ‘s magazines and besides magazines that appeal to immature adolescent misss from 2003. The research was broken down to look at the advertizements, beauty and manner subdivisions, articles and images that featured in each magazine. They found that the magazines pages were overloaded with advertizements.
They besides noted that all of the magazines featured thin famous persons and all contained articles that told the reader how to repair job figures. They suggest that magazines are connoting that if the reader does non hold the same organic structure form that the famous person possesses so they have a job that should be dealt with. This was to be done through purchasing one of the many merchandises that featured in the beauty advertizements. This survey provided a model on which to establish the current research and besides allowed for a comparing of some of the consequences. However, the analysis tended to be more narrative based.
A survey, which did look at the negative affects that magazines have on immature adult females, was carried out in 2007 by Kim and Lennon. They studied whether the degree of exposure to manner or beauty magazines is related to self-esteem, body image and eating upset inclinations. They found a positive correlativity between this. They besides looked at telecasting sing but found that there was no connexion.
However, all participants were from an undergraduate fabrics and vesture class. The manner industry is known for its preoccupation with the thin organic structure therefore the participant ‘s surveies may besides hold effected how they construct their organic structure image. Another job is that the bulk of the participants were normal or scraggy with merely 14 % in the fleshy class. This could besides hold affected the consequences as organic structure image could impact adult females of different sizes in different ways.
One theoretician who has carried out many surveies in this field is R.A. Botta. This research worker is, nevertheless, more concerned with the consequence that media has on immature misss attitudes towards organic structure image. Many of the surveies focus on the consequence that telecasting has nevertheless one survey carried out in 2003 does concentrate on magazine reading. This survey looked at 400 participants, both male childs and misss and the average age of participants was 18.94 adding to the relevancy of this survey.
This survey found that in misss, increased ingestion of manner magazines and wellness and fittingness magazines correlated with an addition in bulimic behavior. They besides found that misss who said they did non internalise the organic structure size images in magazines had a greater trade of organic structure satisfaction and a reduced thrust to be thin. This survey may account for why some adult females are non affected by the thin ideal perpetuated in magazines.
In a similar survey, carried out by Levine, Smolak and Hayden ( 1994 ) . However, this studied focused on younger ( aged 10-14 ) female lone participants. This stuffy focused on the socio-cultural factors and participants were questioned about eating behaviour, organic structure satisfaction, concern with being slender, and cues from parents, equals, and magazine reading. The findings showed that the bulk of participants felt that magazines gave a clear message about the importance of being thin.
They besides found that a thrust for tenuity for this group came both from weight/shape-related tease and unfavorable judgment by household and besides reading magazines that contain information and thoughts about an attractive organic structure form and about weight direction. Although this does concentrate on immature kids, which this research does non look at due to ethical issues, it does demo grounds that media consequence on adult females ‘s organic structure image is present at this age. Levine is a psychological research worker with an involvement in this field.
It was besides of import to look at the paradox that occurs when it is argued that a presumed media influence is evident. If a magazine does do a adult female experience unhappy about herself and her organic structure so why does she go on to read it or purchase magazines? A survey by Wilcox and Laird ( 2000 ) say that the reply to this inquiry is that “ merely some adult females are dissatisfied by the media word pictures, while others find them gratifying or at least indifferent. ”
In the research they set out to happen out which adult females would be affected and why. Wilcox and Laird carried out research utilizing participants aged 18-35. They showed the adult females images of advertizements for vesture. One group viewed images of thin adult females and the other images of adult females that were more robust. They found that adult female who were more inclined towards societal comparing were more likely to describe reduced self-esteem, and adult females inclined towards designation were more happy with their organic structures as they imagine that they excessively could be as slender and attractive as the theoretical account in the image.
However, the nexus that they present seems to be instead weak, non helped by the fact that merely 41 participants were used. This little sample size means that the consequences and the consequence that they found does non give a wide representation of society.
Media Commentator Views
The media has provided a batch of commentary on magazines and the consequence that they have on adult females and the organic structure image that they contain. They have besides provided discourse on the size nothing argument, which has intensified over clip. The sentiments within the media are diverse and although many are nonreversible and non genuinely academic, it was felt of import to analyze some of the thoughts and positions that were being put frontward.
The size nothing argument truly came to the head after the decease of Luisa Ramos, a immature theoretical account in 2006. Although the cause of decease was said to be bosom failure, her male parent said that she had fasted for yearss. ( Kay 2006 ) The media picked up on this and ran countless narratives about the manner industry and the consequence that they may hold on adult females and their organic structure image. One article by Karen Kay ( 2006 ) asked if size nothing theoretical accounts were excessively thin for the catwalk.
This took into history the reactions of the British Fashion Council who said that “ It is non a inquiry about size specifically ; it is a inquiry about wellness ” . The article besides contained the positions of a twosome of manner interior decorators who agreed that they would non utilize a theoretical account who looked ailment. However, one interior decorator who merely spoke anonymously pushed the incrimination onto manner magazines, “ I have to do my samples in a size eight… if I make them any bigger… no-one will utilize the samples in manner magazines. ”
This can be contrasted to the position of Alexandra Shulman, the editor of British Vogue, who in 2009 sent a missive to interior decorators faulting them for the of all time thinner theoretical accounts that are found in magazines stating that editors “ had no pick but to engage theoretical accounts that fitted the apparels. ” ( Adetunji 2009 ) . Although, Shulman says that magazines should take some of the incrimination for the thin civilization, in an interview with Frontline in 1999 she said “ Not many people have really said to me that they have looked at my magazine and decided to go anorectic. ”
This was quoted in Susan Bordo ( 2003 ) . Lorraine Candy, editor and head of Elle magazine in the United Kingdom, besides portions this position. In an interview with Ben Dowell in the Guardian ( 2010 ) , Candy said “ Anorexia is a mental unwellness. It is driven by many, many things. I can non alter a girls life ( which is ) every bit much a conducive factor as perchance looking at a magazine and stating I want to be thin ” . The negative effects that magazine have on adult females has been outlined in surveies by Botta, 2003 ; Vaughan and Fouts, 2003 and Kim and Lennon 2007. The survey carried out by Kim and Lennon even looked at the consequence that magazines have on eating upset inclinations.
After the decease of Luisa Ramos, an article in the Daily Mail blamed theoretical accounts for younger and younger misss going anorectic. Jenny Hope ( 2006 ) interviewed DR Jon Goldin, a Doctor from Great Ormond Street infirmary in London. The fact that this article inside informations medical sentiment gives it credibleness although the beginning is non academic. Goldins position is that the glamorization of the thin adult females in magazines and telecasting could hold unsafe effects on some kids. This was besides seen in many academic surveies ( Levine, Smolak, and Hayden, 1994 ; Botta, 1999 ; and Harrison 2000 ).
However, a survey carried out in 2009, by Ian Frampton, a pediatric psychologist at Great Ormond Street infirmary, and his co-workers have found that misss are predisposed to anorexia because of how the encephalon developed I the uterus ( Campbell, 2009 ) . This survey could possibly blemish the statement that “ societal factors ” force per unit area misss to lose weight and can do eating upsets. Again, this is a medical statement so does hold some cogency, nevertheless, this determination is really recent and hence will hold to be developed and tested further to be conclusive. This is non the lone media position that is comparatively at odds.
In 2009, there were many newspaper articles proclaiming that we were get downing to see the terminal of size nothing particularly in adult females ‘s magazines. This started with the missive written by Alexandra Shulman. Then, Brigette a German adult female ‘s magazine decided to censor professional theoretical accounts ( Connolly 2009a ) . However, this led to Karl Lagerfeld, a interior decorator for the high manner trade name Chanel, said that the determination was driven by fleshy adult females who did non like to be reminded of their ain weight issues ( Connolly, 2009b ) .
This controversial position can be compared with the plus sized exposure shoot, in which Lagerfeld was a portion of, in V magazines size issue in which theoretical accounts of all forms and sizes were used. This once more was said to add to the ‘death of size nothing ‘ that was happening in 2009. This is besides contradicted with the fact that in 2007, Lagerfeld sent off three theoretical accounts because he felt that they were excessively scraggy ( Alexander 2007 ) . The position that the interior decorator has on size nothing is really conflicting. The decease of size nothing was non merely contributed to magazines in the media, it was besides being said that interior decorators were possibly altering when Mark Fast, used theoretical accounts up to a size 14.
However, non all media observers believe that this is a positive alteration. Jezebel, a famous person and manner web log argues that “ much like when Italian Vogue did an ‘all-black issue, ‘ the flipside of foregrounding one sort of theoretical account in a ‘special ‘ issue is that they ‘re really being segregated, placed in a ghetto, off from the other ‘real ‘ theoretical accounts ” ( Jezebel 2009 ) . Again, this beginning has no academic credibleness and as the writer is unknown it further adds to this.
In March 2010, Kira Cochrane, a author for the Guardian argued, that the supposed alteration seemed to hold stopped. She commented that at Paris Fashion hebdomad “ protrusion collar castanetss were omnipresent ” and that “ there were a twosome of shows… where healthier organic structures were on show… they were n’t a political statement, they were merely an aesthetic pick.
Her unfavorable judgment is non merely of the manner industry but besides the magazine industry, noticing that after Alexandra Shulman voiced her concerns last twelvemonth the argument has became soundless. This article is really subjective and possibly it is excessively early to see if there truly has been a alteration or if there is alteration at all. As Alexandra Shulman commented, “ I think it will alter, but slower that I would wish to see it alter ” ( Nikkhah 2009 ) . Another unfavorable judgment of this is that this can be seen in the media antecedently.
The first clip this was seen was in 2006 when after the decease of the theoretical account antecedently mentioned, manners shows in Madrid and Milan decided to censor really thin theoretical accounts ( Johnston 2006 ) . However, in January 2007, The Daily Mail ran a narrative with the headline “ Founder of London Fashion Week says ‘Size Zero ‘ conflict is non over after the British Fashion Council refused to censor extremist scraggy theoretical accounts as had occurred in Madrid and Milan ( Constantinou 2007 ) .
This backwards and forwards can be seen being played out up until the current. In June 2008, the perceiver reported that Size Zero was back ( Davies 2008 ) and merely months subsequently in October, The Sunday Times reported that “ marks of a curvy, sexy and confident hereafter are here ” with “ The Death of Size Zero ” ( Spicer 2008 ) . The complexness of the issue and statement may intend that in order to understand if 2010 truly does see the terminal of size nothing, we will hold to wait longer for the consequences.
Another complexness seen in media commentary is that non all of the positions that are being put frontward are negative about size nothing. The most recent unfavorable judgment comes from Lisa Hilton ( 2010 ) . In her subjective article, she argues that adult females are non stupid and are able to separate the phantasy of the thin ideal and the worlds of their ain organic structures. However, this is an argumentative piece written by one writer. Womans do now cognize that about all magazine images are digitally enhanced and manipulated but still the images affect self-esteem and body image in immature adult females.
Another unfavorable judgment, although once more coming wholly from the writers point of position is an article from the Daily Telegraph by Bryony Gordon ( 2009 ) . “ Magazines, telecasting movies… people frequently ask why they are n’t more brooding of existent life, but the ground is that more frequently than non, they are an flight from it. Are we so stupid that we truly believe we have to look like a supermodel? ” She besides says that adult females should merely accept that it is normal to be unhappy about their organic structure image.
Chapter 4 Contented Analysis Consequences
This chapter inside informations the primary research that was undertaken. First, there is a general overview of the tendencies that were found when the research was carried out. This will than be followed by the specific findings from each magazine that was studied. This will look at the types of articles environing the thin ideal, the words used within them, the images that were used and how the content is distributed. This will all highlight the sum and type of coverage that magazines give to the thin ideal and will look at whether magazines do promote adult females to draw a bead on to be thin.
For the intents of this research Vogue, Glamour, Cosmopolitan, More, and Heat magazines were analysed, with two issues of each magazine being examined. As the magazines all have differing sums of pages, it was indispensable to quantify this before being able to analyze the true sum of coverage that the magazines gave to advancing thin messages and a thin organic structure type.
Therefore Vogue has the greatest figure of pages with 377 in the March 2010 issue. The April edition of Glamour with 306 pages so followed this. The April 2010 issue of Vogue had 293 pages. Both editions of Vogue magazine featured an advertisement disengagement at the forepart of the magazine, which accounts for the uneven figure of pages. This was so followed by Cosmopolitan, which featured 252 pages in each of the issues. March ‘s Glamour came following with 218 pages in the March issue, Heat so had 132 pages within the issue that came out between the 6th and 12th of February and 128 pages in the 3rd-9th April edition. Finally both editions of More! 108 pages.
With this quantified, it was so possible to analyze the coverage that each of these magazines gave to the thin ideal. This included and page that had an image that glamourised tenuity, any article that had commentary on organic structure form or weight and advertisement that promoted a slender visual aspect. With the natural informations compared, it appeared that the figure of page figure correlated with the figure of times a thin ideal message or image appeared. For illustration, Vogue had 204 visual aspects and More! magazine had 30.
However, when this is taken as a per centum of coverage within the magazine, there are some disagreements. Vogue contains the highest per centum of thin ideal messages, advertizements and images with both issues holding over 50 % of the magazine coverage incorporating this. Suprisingly, the issue of More! from the 5th of April has 47 % of the magazine incorporating a thin ideal. 36 % of the April 2010 issue of Glamour contains an illustration of the thin ideal.
Cosmopolitan, Glamour and the Februarty illustration of More! have around a 30 % of the magazine coverage holding a thin ideal significance. Heat magazine has the lowest coverage with merely 17 % of the magazine incorporating a thin ideal message, advertizement or image. This was so broken down further to look at the sum of coverage that each magazine had on each type of coverage that was found environing the thin ideal. This includes magazine articles, manner spreads, advertizements and thin ideal images.
Women ‘s Magazines and Thin Ideal Articles
Although it was expected that there would be enough of magazine articles that could be said to incorporate the thin ideal, there were a batch less than was thought.
Therefore, in entire the figure of articles that detailed a discourse that could be described as a thin ideal within the magazines that were analysed totalled 29. The articles that were found will be scrutinized farther within the analysis of each single magazine.
Women ‘s Magazines and Thin Ideal Fashion Spreads
Manner coverage within adult females ‘s magazines is an country that is about expected to foreground the thin ideal that they portray. In the content analysis it was found that in the magazines studied a big sum of the stuff within the magazines was dedicated to manner coverag