This case was written by Professor Michele Greenwald, Visiting Professor at HEC Paris, for use with Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective – 7th edition by George E. Belch and Michael A.
Belch. It is intended to be used as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a management situation. The case was compiled from published sourcesIntroduction When Fortune magazine named its product of the year in 2001, the winner was a new technology that many feel may revolutionize the way we listen to radio. The magazine’s rationale for its selection stated: “Of all the new technologies of 2001, XM Satellite Radio is way, way, way above the rest. It’s the first major advance in radio since FM emerged in the 1960s, and the best thing to happen to mobile music since the dashboard CD player. ” After spending more than a billion dollars for programming and satellite operating expenses, as well as catchy TV commercials featuring celebrities such as David Bowie, B.
B. King and Snoop Dogg; XM Satellite radio hit the airways in the Fall of 2001, claiming that it would do for radio what cable did for television. XM used “Rock” and “Roll,” its two Boeing 702 satellites stationed over the East and West coasts to beam more than 100 audio channels from the stratosphere to subscribers’ cars. While subscribers to satellite radio can still receive regular AM and FM terrestrial stations via their car antennas, by 2006 they could get more than 170 XM channels of nearly commercial-free digital radio that includes music, news, talk, sports, and children’s programming.
Many industry observers noted that there was a tremendous opportunity for satellite radio at the beginning of the new millennium. There had been consolidation in the radio industry which led to repetitious, cookie-cutter formats in markets across the country. Companies such as Clear Channel had built large radio conglomerates and were paying for them by increasing the commercial load, which resulted in less programming and more frustrated listeners. XM’s chief programmer, Lee Abarams, noted that the company hoped to have the same creative effect as the FM revolution of the late ‘60s and ‘70s which brought major changes to the radio scene.FM’s superior sound and lack of commercial clutter triggered a huge audience shift away from AM radio.
However, Abrams argued that FM had sprouted a potbelly, gone gray at the temples, and become the stodgy establishment – complacent and vulnerable to a hard charging rival such as XM. “Right now, we live in a very vanilla age, radio-wise,” noted Abrams. “Except for talk radio, it’s stay in the middle, don’t upset anybody, and play the big hits everybody’s comfortable with. We’re 180 degrees from that. We want to challenge people. XM Satellite Radio first went live in September 2001 with 100 channels that ranged from commercial free music, to comedy, news, sports, talk radio, kids, women’s, and “old time radio” programming. After an initial investment of $200-$300 in equipment and installation, the cost of the service was $9.
95 per month. (The upfront costs have come down considerably since. ) This was the first time consumers had ever been asked to pay for a form of entertainment that had always been available free of charge. In June of 2002, Sirius Satellite Radio launched a competitive service at a subscription rate of $12.
5 per month. Many doubted either service would succeed. By the end of 2005, XM had 6 million subscribers and 150 channels, and Sirius had 3. 3 million subscribers and 130 channels. XM reached four million users faster than MP3 players, CD players, cell phones, and Internet service providers. Wall Street analysts have projected the number of subscribers for both XM and Sirius combined will reach between 18 to 20 million in the U.
S. by 2010. These projections were based on the huge potential user base as there are approximately 575 million radios in the U. S.
with an average of 5. 6 radios per household. Also, an estimated 95 percent of the vehicles in the U. S. have radios and represent a major market opportunity for satellite radio.
Programming With the ability to offer so many different channels, XM Satellite Radio has a wide variety of programming and a huge potential user base. As of 2006, XM Satellite Radio offered approximately 170 channels including: ? News channels such as CNN, Fox News, BBC World Service, CNBC, ABC News & Talk, Bloomberg Financial News, Air America Radio, and the Discovery Channel ?Comedy channels such as XM Comedy, Laugh USA and Laugh Attack ? Talk radio programming such as Opie & Anthony, Ellen DeGeneres, Dr. Laura Schlesinger, Bob Edwards on XM Public Radio, and G. Gordon Liddy ? Sports programming such as Major League Baseball, ESPN Radio, Fox Sports Radio, the National Hockey League, the PGA Tour, the US Open Golf Tournament and college football and basketball games for major conferences including the Pac 10, Big 10 and Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Local weather and traffic conditions for 21 major metropolitan markets plus several interstate corridors nationwide ? Children’s programming such as Radio Disney and XM Kids ? Commercial free music of virtually every genre and decade including: Jazz, hip-hop, classical, rock, Christian, urban, and country as well as music from various decades ? Original programming hosted by music legends such as Bob Dylan, Quincy Jones, and Snoop Dogg and live performances by major artists such as Coldplay, Lenny Kravitz, and Willie Nelson and from venues such as Jazz at the Lincoln Center ?Women’s programming such as Ellen DeGeneres, Take 5, and most recently, Oprah & Friends ? Hispanic programming such as music, sports, and CNN en Espanol In addition to the wide range of programming, satellite radio makes the same stations available from coast to coast which is a major advantage over the relatively narrow geographic coverage of traditional, ”terrestrial” radio stations. For those traveling across a broad geography via truck, car, or RV the ability to listen to their favorite stations wherever they go is a major benefit.Other benefits of satellite radio include better sound quality; commercial free music; a digital display readout of each station, song title, and artist; the ability to receive sports scores and stock quotes; and ease of use relative to podcasts and MP3 players. Products/Hardware XM is pursuing a “ubiquity” strategy by making the product available wherever, and in whatever form people listen to music.
They are implementing this strategy by constantly improving the product features and reducing the size of the hardware that carries the satellite receiver chip.The initial satellite radio receiver unit was the size of a small box. However, today there are a variety of different receiver options including units that are permanent part of a car dashboard, a “plug and play” option that can be utilized in the car or in the home, and a mobile unit called XM2Go that resembles an MP3 player and can receive XM satellite service and record and store up to five hours of programming. While XM’s R&D team developed most of the technology, the company has also partnered with a variety of electronic hardware manufacturers including Pioneer, Delphi, Alpine, Samsung, and Sony.
In addition to units that play only satellite radio, XM can also be heard through Direct TV and via Internet streaming on personal computers. In April 2006, Pioneer introduced a combination XM/MP3 player called the Inno, and Samsung introduced a similar unit in May 2006 called the Helix. These units give users more choice than another audio products, as they combine the features of an MP3 player with all of XM’s programming, and the ability to record from XM stations for later listening. Creating Awareness and Generating TrialIn developing the marketing plan to launch XM, the company had to identify its potential early adopters and also determine the best way to convince consumers, who had always listened to radio for free, that they should now be willing to pay to do so.
While men have accounted for 65 percent of the early adapters of satellite radio, the age distribution of listeners is far broader than was originally expected as show below. Satellite Radio Listeners By Age Age GroupPercent 18-34 23% 35-44 23% 45-54 25% 55+ 28% Source: Arbitron Custom Listening Study Spring 2005Some industry analysts suggest that the Satellite Radio category may turn out to have a development pattern analogous to the Internet, in which men were the primary early adopters, but usage is now split equally among both sexes. Mass media advertising was utilized from the beginning to generate awareness and brand name recognition for XM and start the education process the new radio format. However, XM soon discovered that like many other ground-breaking new products, it was not easy for consumers to imagine how great the product was from advertising descriptions alone.
Rather to truly appreciate the product’s unique benefits, one had to experience it. This finding lead XM to develop trial generating programs that would enable as many target consumers as possible to experience the product, risk free. XM developed a comprehensive trial program that has left practically no stone unturned. First, live product demos were made available at point-of-sale in key electronics retailers such as Best Buy, Circuit City, Sears, Tweeter, Ultimate Electronics, and mass merchandisers such as Target and Wal-Mart.Satellite receivers were installed on the roofs of many of these stores at a cost of approximately $1,000 each, and in-store demo booths were set up so consumers could hear XM’s sound quality difference and sample its programming content. Automobiles and other types of vehicles were also targeted as an ideal place to demo XM.
Of the approximately 575 million radios in the United States, about 40 percent or 230 million are installed in cars.Sampling programs were developed with car rental companies such as Avis, National, Alamo, and Zipcars, so when business or pleasure travelers rented a premium level car they could experience XM Satellite Radio. Most of the car radios were left in the “on” position in rental car lots, so when the car was started the traveler could not help but notice the service. Some of the car rental companies even attached an “XM” tag to their key chains. Promotional literature and XM signage were made available in the rental offices, and XM signage “wraps” were placed on the shuttle buses from the airports to the rental car lots.Partnering with automobile manufacturers to get them to install XM satellite radio systems in new vehicles has been the major strategic priority for the company. Of the estimated 29 million car radios sold annually, approximately 17 million come factory- installed.
XM first contracted with General Motors to install radios in Cadillacs. This has been a win/win program, as XM has added value to these vehicles by providing a competitive benefit that can be used as a selling point in advertising as well as on the showroom floor.The promotion of XM as an accessory in some of its new vehicles was one of the most extensive advertising efforts ever done by General Motors for a factory-installed option. New vehicle owners are given a 90-day free trial period, after which they have the option of subscribing to the service. While some customers never listen to XM during the free trial period, approximately 60 percent of the installations have resulted in a subscription . In addition, consumers who did not purchase a vehicle but took it for a test drive, often had XM demonstrated to them by the dealer sales person.There is also a viral component to the promotion of XM as those who have the product installed in their vehicles have been very satisfied with the service and often rave about it to others. Factory installations have been a cornerstone of XM’s marketing strategy and the company has aggressively pursued partnerships with automobile manufacturers.
In addition to General Motors, XM has exclusive deals with Honda (including Acura), Toyota (including Lexus and Scion), Nissan (including Infiniti), Volkswagen/Audi, Porsche, Saab and Hyundai. XM’s partners control approximately 60 percent of the U. S.
utomobile market and XM Satellite Radios will be installed in most of their vehicles by late 2007. A further benefit of these automobile partnerships is that quality names such as Porsche, Audi, Cadillac, Hummer, Acura, and Lexus have lent credibility to XM, a new brand that was formerly unknown to consumers. As with General Motors, many of XM’s automotive partners advertise XM Satellite Radio as a desirable feature, thereby further increasing brand awareness.
Another strategic move XM has made to sample its satellite radio service to a captive audience seeking audio entertainment is partnering with airlines.XM developed a partnership with Jet Blue Airlines and began offering 150 channels of programming on most flights in early 2006. Jet Blue flies approximately 20 million passengers per year and is experiencing strong growth, so this sampling effort is significant. A similar partnership was also struck with AirTran Airways which became the first airline to offer XM Satellite Radio at every seat on every flight. Yet another trial and awareness generating sampling program involves the creation of a Starbucks radio channel that airs in 4,000 Starbucks outlets around the country, roviding music to the coffee shops. Sampling also has been cleverly implemented by XM at the PGA golf tournaments they sponsor. Portable XM Radios are rented to attendees to provide more complete tournament coverage so they will know what is happening beyond the spot on the course where they are watching.
XM also uses sales promotion techniques to encourage trial and reduce the up-front investment in equipment. These include mail-in rebate offers and subsidies on hardware purchases offered through retail outlets. Advertising StrategyThe advertising strategy for XM initially focused on selling the concept of satellite radio and establishing XM as the pioneering brand. Prior to and during its launch, XM used a “falling stars” campaign that was based on a metaphor of things falling from space to introduce the concept of satellite radio.
The television commercials depicted artists and objects falling from the sky including rapper Snoop Dog, guitarist B. B. King, singer David Bowie, a race car, musical instruments, old 45 rpm records, and sports equipment.
One spot featured Snoop Dogg crashing through an office ceiling while another showed David Bowie plummeting onto a motel roof and landing in an elderly couple’s room – precisely as the satellite radio’s signals fall from space. The original tagline was “Beyond AM. Beyond FM. XM Satellite Radio. Radio to the power of X. ” which helped position XM as a significant advance beyond terrestrial radio. The commercials and tagline communicated the satellite aspect in a futuristic way, and established XM as “the” satellite brand that is defining this revolutionary, and by implication, superior new format.
The tagline was later shortened to “Beyond AM. Beyond FM. XM. ” The $100 million advertising campaign also included radio, magazine, newspaper, outdoor and online advertising. As awareness for XM Satellite Radio increased, the advertising focus shifted to communicating the breadth and quality of programming content. This was done in various ways such as through the use of a four-page insert that listed all of XM’s channels in a variety of magazines.
XM has also focused on showcasing its impressive roster of talent that includes musicians, entertainers, news and business personalities, talk show hosts, and sports personalities.In addition to advertising that focuses on programming content, XM has run spots to feature its latest product/hardware technology. Throughout the short history of this highly competitive “two-man” satellite radio race, XM has been the leader in introducing new technology. Thus, it has been important for the company to advertise each new generation of product to make consumers aware of the advances that make XM’s satellite receivers ever more portable, convenient, and easier to use and also to reinforce its position as the leader in category innovation. Media StrategyXM’s media budget, which now ranges between $25-45 million, is sizable but not huge.
Therefore, the company has had to be selective with its media expenditures. Approximately 60 percent of XM’s media budget was initially allocated to television, with the balance going to Internet advertising, magazines (such as Rolling Stone, Car and Driver, GQ and Entertainment Weekly) and AM and FM radio. Web banner ads have been placed on music sites and sports related sites such as baseball, golf and auto racing, sports for which XM has exclusive content contracts. Pricing StrategyXM’s original pricing strategy was designed to encourage trial as well as loyalty and repeat purchase of the service. XM was introduced in 2001 with a $9. 95 per month subscription price. This price level was maintained for more than three years as the company felt this reasonable price point (approximately 33 cents per day) would encourage the conversion of new users into longer-term subscribers. While Sirius launched in June 2002 at $12.
95 per month, XM opted to continue its penetration pricing strategy to maximize the conversion of new users more quickly and generate revenue by maintaining subscribers to the service.XM maintained the $9. 95 per month price level until March 2005 when it raised its price to $12. 95, the same level as Sirius. XM has offered escalating discounts for customers who sign up and pay in advance for one year, two years, or even a lifetime. Additionally, there are family member add-on plans so that radios can be added to the base member’s $12. 95 monthly plan at a cost of $6.
99 per radio. Someone who has a radio installed in their car and doesn’t want the inconvenience of unplugging it to bring it into their house, may choose this option.This pricing strategy encourages users to have multiple units: ideally in their car, in their home, and a portable to carry around like an iPod. The price of the hardware has come down and now ranges anywhere from $49 to $399 depending on the model, thereby bringing the cost of multiple units within reach for many. Competition XM faces competition primarily from four different areas including Sirius, terrestrial radio, MP3 players, and Internet radio.
XM’s only direct competitor in the satellite radio space is Sirius Satellite radio which debuted 10 months after XM.Sirius’ market share has grown to nearly 40 percent with strong gains in the fourth quarter of 2005, in large part due to a flurry of Howard Stern fans subscribing to its service in anticipation of his January 2006 debut. Sirius paid $500 million to lure the shock jock away from terrestrial radio by signing him to a five-year deal that began in 2006. Sirius’s programming skews slightly more toward younger males, with programming such as the National Basketball Association (NBA) and National Football League (NFL) games.The NFL deal cost $220 million for seven years and Sirius also signed a $107 million five-year deal with NASCAR for the broadcasting rights to the second most popular sport in America.
A 24/7 NASCAR channel will feature live races and launch in the 2007 season. Sirius’ sound quality appears to be slightly inferior as reported by Sound and Vision Magazine, and their exclusive automobile partnerships are not as strong as XM’s. For the first several years of this new industry, Sirius was offered at a price premium of $12. 95 per month vs. XM’s $9.
95 price.However, both services are currently parity priced at $12. 95. Sirius has also been very aggressive in its use of advertising and promotion. The company offers rebates of up to $100 to retail buyers of new satellite radios and has spent heavily on advertising to promote the signing of Howard Stern as well as its NFL deal.
In 2005, its advertising and marketing costs were $163 million, nearly double the amount from the previous year. Another source of competition for both XM and Sirius is traditional terrestrial radio. The primary advantages of terrestrial radio are that it’s ree and has local content and personalities that listeners are accustomed to and enjoy. However, traditional radio suffers from inferior sound quality, more limited program offerings, an average of 12 minutes of advertising per hour (even more during popular drive times) and signals that cannot be heard when listeners travel outside the local market.
However, many AM and FM stations are in the process of switching to new digital technology, which will allow them to offer better sound quality as well as new programs and services.Some experts argue that local broadcasters have an advantage over the new satellite technology since they can offer local news and sports information, talk shows that appeal to local communities and more traffic reports for rush hour motorists. And although the signals for most stations do not travel very far, terrestrial radio stations offer a wide variety of programming in their local markets. Converting listeners from traditional AM and FM radio may offer the greatest opportunity for satellite radio as the Radio Advertising Bureau estimates that 77 percent of Americans over the age of 12 listen to radio.Also, given the similarity in how it’s used, satellite radio does not require the same learning curve as MP3 players. An estimated 108 million Americans live outside the broadcast range of the largest 50 radio markets.
These underserved radio customers offer another large potential source of subscribers. Also, since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) does not regulate satellite radio, there are fewer restrictions on content. Thus, irreverent programming, such as Howard Stern’s show on Sirius or Opie and Anthony on XM, can be broadcast during prime listening hours on satellite radio, which cannot be done on AM and FM stations.And while terrestrial radio is in the process of upgrading to digital technology that will significantly improve its sound quality, users will have to buy new equipment to receive the digital signals and programming on AM and FM stations will still include commercials. MP3 players such as the Apple iPod have also become an important form of competition for satellite radio as they make it possible for people to carry thousands of songs with them in a device smaller than a pack of cigarettes.Most MP3 players can now be used in cars which makes them a viable alternative to satellite radio for those individuals who primarily want to listen to music while they drive. However, creating the content is work for the listener, there is usually less choice in genres on MP3 players and they don’t offer live broadcasts. Listeners have to find the songs or podcasts they want to hear, download them, organize them, and change them.
With satellite radio, the selections and availability are created for listeners, and many people like the content surprise of radio.The relative disadvantage of satellite radio is that listeners cannot listen to exactly what they want, when they want, and they don’t have the unlimited content options that iTunes and podcasts make possible. There seems to be a generation-divide on the benefits of each. The younger generation is more comfortable with the effort required to create content for their MP3’s, while the older generation tends to be less desirous of engaging in the work needed to create a library of listening material. Internet radio enjoys most of the same advantages and disadvantages of MP3 players in offering unlimited choice.The primary advantage versus MP3 players is that Internet radio requires less downloading and uploading, since audio can be streamed directly from the source.
The disadvantage of Internet radio at present is the need to have a computer in the car. Eventually, it will be easier to access the Internet in the car via small, mobile devices. Internet radio may pose the greatest threat of all to satellite radio, since cars will at some point be able to receive Internet service, including streaming audio. Due to bandwidth issues, however, the technology appears to be several years down the road.
Future ChallengesBy the end of the second quarter of 2006, XM had a total of 6. 9 million subscribers and expected to have 8 million by the end of 2006. Sirius added 600,460 subscribers during the second quarter of 2006 which brought its total number to 4.
6 million. However, both satellite radio companies are facing high costs resulting from the deals they made to acquire programming content. Costs for advertising and promotion are also high as both companies offer rebates to retail customers and pay incentive fees (spiffs) to retailers each time someone buys a satellite radio in the store and activates it.In addition competition is intensifying as terrestrial radio begins promoting its digital capabilities and service, Apple released new iPods and Microsoft entered the music market with its new line of Zune MP3 players.
In August 2006, Apple announced deals with General Motors, Ford and Mazda that will result in 70 percent of U. S. made cars offering built-in iPod compatibility by 2007. One of the greatest challenges XM Satellite Radio faces in the future is determining which markets to target in terms of demographics as well as adoption potential.As noted earlier, satellite radio appeals to consumers across all adult age groups. Rather than competing directly with Sirius for the 18-34 year old male group, XM might have more success targeting older consumers who are more comfortable with the radio format than MP3s and Internet radio.
Similarly, XM might consider more aggressively pursuing females as well as the Hispanic market with additional marketing programs and content. Both groups are currently underdeveloped in terms of usage and have significant growth potential. XM’s challenges also include determining the best strategic positioning for its service.XM must decide whether to directly target Sirius by communicating that it has the best content, hardware, and sound quality; whether to target terrestrial radio by focusing on XM’s content, national coverage, commercial free music, and superior sound; or whether to target more customizable formats such as MP3 players and Internet radio that is rapidly becoming an enormous segment of the audio market. XM acknowledges that for people who do not spend a lot of time in their cars or local drivers who have a short commute, satellite radio may be more than they need.The natural audience for satellite radio will be the true car potato – the salesperson, suburban-sprawl commuter, or long haul driver such as truckers (who have their own channel on XM, Open Road). Another market may be the real music junkie who wants the listening options and superior sound quality offered by satellite radio.
Industry analysts are still debating whether satellite radio will revolutionize radio listening habits or become the CB-radio fad of the new millennium. Skeptics argue that consumers do not want to be faced with another monthly bill for XM or Sirius satellite radio service when they are used to getting radio for free.They also note that many consumers are having iPod adapters installed in their cars rather than opt for satellite radio. However, some analysts noted that that there was a time when many experts predicted that people would never pay for cable television. They argue that satellite radio services such as XM and Sirius have a viable business model and will reach the projections of nearly 20 million subscribers by the end of the decade. One area where there is agreement, however, is that digital technology has changed the competitive landscape and the market in which satellite radio competes.
This market has become much more complicate and strong integrated marketing programs are needed to attract users to satellite radio and retain them. Note: Copies of print advertisements for XM Satellite Radio are available in the Power Point file that accompanies the case. Discussion Questions 1. Which competitors should XM be focusing on in the future: Sirius, terrestrial radio, or emerging/explosive growth technologies such as MP3 players, podcasts, and Internet radio? 2. Should XM try to appeal to all demographic groups or target specific segments? If the latter, which segments should they target and why?What types of advertising and promotion tactics can be used to market XM to these market segments? 3. What are XM’s options for their advertising creative strategy? Should they focus on their content and programming, digital sound quality, ease of use versus the other alternatives, their innovative hardware, or a combination of these features and attributes? 4. Are there any other sampling or promotional programs that XM should pursue to attract new subscribers and retain them? 5. How can XM combat the momentum Sirius has gained from the signing of Howard Stern? 6.
Is there a cooperative advertising message (such as Intel Inside) that XM should seek to promote with its distribution partners that can create synergy and even greater awareness for the brand and it’s unique benefits? 7. What type of programs can XM develop with retailers to increase their share of aftermarket installations? Sources Bill Breen, “Written in the Stars,” Fast Company, February 2005, pp. 54-59.
Ana Marie Cox, “Howard Stern and the Satellite Wars,” Wired. March 2005: p. 99 Cara B. Dipasquale, “David Bowie Falls to Earth for Satellite Radio,” Advertising Age, July 24, 2001, p. .
Scott Donaton, “Is He Sirius? ,” Advertising Age. April 11, 2005, pp. 1,90 William Glanz, “XM Satellite to Offer Portable Receiver,” The Washington Times. , October 27, 2004, p. C7. Heather Green, Tom Lowry and Catherine Yang, “The New Radio Revolution,” BusinessWeek, March 14, 2005, pp.
32-35. Lee Jenkins, “Baseball Rediscovers Its Radio Days,” The New York Times, July 12, 2005, p. D1. Scott Wooley, “Broadcast Bullies,” Forbes, September 6, 2004, pp. 134-142. John Heilemann, “Why Is This Man Smiling? ,” Business 2.
0, June 1, 2005, p. 40.Eric Hellweg, “Suddenly, Satellite Radio Matters,” Tech Investor, September 30, 2004. Anne Kadet, “Satellite Smackdown”, Smart Money, March 2005 Sarah McBride, “Until Recently Full of Promise, Satellite Radio Runs Into Static,” The Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2006, p. A1, 9.
Paul R. La Monica, “The Spirit of Satellite Radio,” Tech Investor. September 30, 2004. Laura Petrecca, “Struggling XM seeks a recovery,” USA TODAY, July 27, 2006, p. 3b. Anny Shin, “At XM, Boldly Going; Under Hugh Panero, Satellite Radio is a Hit. Just Ask Howard Stern and Mel Karmazin,” The Washington Post.November 29, 2004.
p. E1. Anny Shin,. “Toyota Cuts Deals for Satellite Radio: Automaker to Offer XM and Sirius Subscription Services. ” The Washington Post.
December, 2004. p. E5. Anny Shin,. “XM, Sirius Deny Rumor of Merger,” The Washington Post.
January 27, 2005, p. E5. Scott Woolley, “Broadcast Bullies.
” Forbes. Sept. 6, 2004. p. 134-142.
“XM Ranks as Fastest-Selling Audio Product in 20 Years with Extremely High Customer Satisfaction, Research Shows,” PR Newswire, January 2, 2002. Interview with Steve Cook, Executive Vice President, XM Satellite Radio, March 2006